GATEHOUSE
The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
 
 
Home
The listings
Other Info
Books
Links
Downloads
Contact
 
Print Page 
 
Next Record 
Previous Record 
Back to list 

Wells Cathedral Precinct

Also known as, or recorded in historical documents as;
Penniless Porch; Brown's Gate; The Dean's Eye; The Bishop's Eye

In the civil parish of Wells.
In the historic county of Somerset.
Modern Authority of Somerset.
1974 county of Somerset.
Medieval County of Somerset.

OS Map Grid Reference: ST54944585
Latitude 51.21010° Longitude -2.64639°

Wells Cathedral Precinct has been described as a certain Fortified Ecclesiastical site.

There are major building remains.

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law.
This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law*.

Description

Penniless Porch
Gateway to Cathedral Green. c1450, built by Bishop Bekynton. Doulting ashlar stone, with lead roof. The upper floors communicate with and are used by the occupants of No.16 (qv). EXTERIOR: 3 storeys, single bay, exposed on west and north sides only. Plinth, moulded strings between floors and under battlemented parapet, octagonal south-west corner turret. West face has 4-centre arch with rosettes set in mouldings, carved spandrels with letter TB (for Thomas Bekynton) interwoven with foliage; first floor has two windows set slightly proud, a double-and a single-light, with cinquefoil cusping to ogee tracery under flat heads, and between them a carved angel figure bearing a coat of arms, further shields in cusped recesses under windows; second floor panelled, with two 2-light windows with blank underpanels, with worn statue niches between them and to either side. The north face has a plainer 4-centre arch with arched label, a corbelled panelled feature in the northwest corner at first floor level and a double-ogee arched statue recess to the left, otherwise the two upper floors rough-rendered and plain, with string and battlemented parapet, angled buttress to north-east corner, and rendered lean-to building set in front of the main east building. In the S wall are two doorways, one plain 4-centred, the other a late C18 pedimented elaborate lierne vault. INTERIOR: there is a single room at each upper level. The first floor has C17 panelling with pilasters, including panelling to seats in window embrasures, and a bolection-mould fireplace to the E. In the SE corner, behind a C17 door in a 4-centred arch is a recess, possibly a former garderobe. The spiral stair in the SW corner has stone treads to the lower flight, but wood treads to the upper flight. The upper room has a 2-bay arch-braced roof with wind-bracing. On the S side are very large moulded brackets or corbels, and a small cusped lancet. HISTORICAL NOTE: the porch is said to be so named as it was the spot where beggars normally sought alms; a stone bench runs along the E wall. (Listed Building Report)
Gatehouse and south boundary wall to the Old Deanery
Gatehouse and boundary walling. C15 much restored. Gatehouse has ashlar ground floor and dressings, with coursed rubble above, gabled Welsh slate roof behind battlemented parapets. EXTERIOR: 2 storeys, 2 bays. Lower bay 1 has a moulded 4-centred waggon arch with a pair of wooden doors which may be at least partly medieval; bay 2 a matching pedestrian arch, above are chamfer-mullioned and transomd 2-light windows with cinquefoil cusping and square labels, between bays a corbelled chimney stack, cropped at the lower edge of the parapet. The inner elevation has a wider segmental arch embracing both bays, above which, towards the east end, is a 2-light window without transom, small stair turret to north-west corner. The soffit over the archway has 2 heavy chamfered beams and plastered panels. In the wall to the right at ground floor is a small rectangular light, and a 3-plank door with stopped moulded frame in a 4-centred flush opening. INTERIOR: the ground floor has a bedroom, part of a former stable, with wide braced plank and batten door under a 16-pane transom-light, and a 3-light stone casement with C17 ovolo-mould mullions and early leaded glazing. The entrance has a fine overlapping 3-plank door, and under the staircase is a 4-panel C17 door, with raised fielded panels on the reverse; over the stair is a deep beam with lamb's-tongue stop. The first floor single room has in the S wall a stone fire surround with chamfered square opening; above this is a floating mantelshelf with a brattished cornice, carried on 3 conical brackets, possibly statue bases. In the SW corner is an entrance to a former privy, with hinge-pin, and from the NW corner is a stone spiral staircase with stone pinnacle. SUBSIDIARY FEATURES: extending to the E is a high random rubble wall with ashlar crenellated coping, with a 4-centred moulded arched doorway giving to the Wells Museum (qv), at the eastern end, and finishing to a straight joint. A double wall extends westwards for about 12m to the Old Deanery (qv), and beyond this a further 20m of high wall to match, with gateway (possibly C20) into the former herb garden of William Turner (1508-1568); this also finishes to a straight joint. (Listed Building Report)
Brown's Gatehouse
Gateway to churchyard, 1451, by Bishop Beckynton as part of his "New Works". Local stone rubble with Doulting stone dressings, Welsh slate roof with coped gables behind parapets, stone chimney stack to south gable. EXTERIOR: 2 storeys, single bay, with abutment on north side.
Ground floor has wide 4-centred arch without side columns or capitals, having carved tablet decoration on west face, above is a central 3-light mullioned window, now blocked, with square recessed panels on either side, and on extreme right a statue niche with semicircular arched head, the base corbelled and linked to ground floor by an attached shaft, string course under parapet, parts of which are now missing, and indication of former corner pinnacles. East elevation to Cathedral Green simpler, with battlemented parapet, first floor has central 3-light chamfer-mullioned window with square label. North elevation has a plain gable, the smaller abutment is about two-thirds the tower height, in bands of Doulting ashlar and local stone, apparently with a flat roof, on west face to Saddler Street a 4-centre pedestrian archway with almost square panel over, with 2 putlog holes to left, and a small cusped- arched window immediately under the parapet string course. North elevation of abutment plain, and only about 2m wide. Soffit of archway has an 8-panel vault with hollow-chamfered ribs and foliated boss. The north wall of the undercroft has a central shaft, and 2 openings into the pedestrian way. The pedestrian passage has a rough pointed barrel vault, with an access doorway, presumably to a staircase in the abutment. INTERIOR: not inspected. HISTORICAL NOTE: the gatehouse takes its name from one Richard Brown, the 1553 tenant of No.20 adjoining; in C19 it was sometimes referred to as "The Dean's Eye"; with the three buildings attached to the south, it cost 200 marks to build. Scheduled Ancient Monument Somerset No.233. (Listed Building Report)

A Royal licence to crenellate was granted in 1286 March 15 (Click on the date for details of this licence.).
A Royal licence to crenellate was granted in 1340 March 29.
A Royal licence to crenellate was granted in 1451 March 22.

Comments

Licence to crenellate issued 1286, "to enclose the churchyard of the cathedral church of Wells and the precinct of the canons' houses in the city with a stone wall, and to crenellate the same for their better security, making sufficient gates and posterns, to be opened at dawn." Clearly expressed as a defence against thieves rather than military or even as a status symbol. A further licence of 1340 for the bishops palace and the close required the gates and posterns to be open for thoroughfare from dawn till night. A further licence of 1451 gives licence to execute the provisions of the previous licence not hitherto executed, which seems to be the whole previous provision. Since the bishops palace was completed by this time this presumable reference to the close around the cathedral of which there are several gates surviving, most notably the Penniless Porch of about 1450 (also Brown's Gate - aka The Dean's Eye - and The Bishop's Eye), which is a clear expression of the status of the Cathedral. Were the earlier licences acted on and the 1451 repeat part of a new building programme. Tension between the cathedral and the town could run quite high at times and the licence may well have been part of mollifying these issues.
Links to archaeological and architectural databases, mapping and other online resources

Data >
    County HER   Scheduling   Listing   I. O. E.
Maps >
Streetmap   NLS maps   Where's the path   Old-Maps      
Data/Maps > 
Magic   V. O. B.   Geology   LIDAR   Open Domesday  
Air Photos > 
Bing Maps   Google Maps   Getmapping   ZoomEarth      
Photos >
CastleFacts   Geograph   Flickr   Panoramio      

Sources of information, references and further reading
Most of the sites or buildings recorded in this web site are NOT open to the public and permission to visit a site must always be sought from the landowner or tenant.
It is an offence to disturb a Scheduled Monument without consent. It is a destruction of everyone's heritage to remove archaeological evidence from ANY site without proper recording and reporting.
Don't use metal detectors on historic sites without authorisation.
The information on this web page may be derived from information compiled by and/or copyright of Historic England, County Historic Environment Records and other individuals and organisations. It may also contain information licensed under the Open Government Licence. All the sources given should be consulted to identify the original copyright holder and permission obtained from them before use of the information on this site for commercial purposes.
The author and compiler of Gatehouse does not receive any income from the site and funds it himself. The information within this site is provided freely for educational purposes only.
The bibliography owes much to various bibliographies produced by John Kenyon for the Council for British Archaeology, the Castle Studies Group and others.
Suggestions for finding online and/or hard copies of bibliographical sources can be seen at this link.
Minor archaeological investigations, such as watching brief reports, and some other 'grey' literature is most likely to be held by H.E.R.s but is often poorly referenced and is unlikely to be recorded here, or elsewhere, but some suggestions can be found here.
The possible site or monument is represented on maps as a point location. This is a guide only. It should be noted that OS grid references defines an area, not a point location. In practice this means the actual center of the site or monument may often, but not always, be to the North East of the point shown. Locations derived from OS grid references and from latitude longitiude may differ by a small distance.
Further information on mapping and location can be seen at this link.
Please help to make this as useful a resource as possible by contacting Gatehouse if you see errors, can add information or have suggestions for improvements in functality and design.
Help is acknowledged.
*The listed building may not be the actual medieval building, but a building on the site of, or incorporating fragments of, the described site.
This record last updated before 1 February 2016

Home | Books | Links | Fortifications and Castles | Other Information | Help | Downloads | Author Information | Contact
¤¤¤¤¤