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Thornbury Castle

Also known as, or recorded in historical documents as;
Thournebury

In the civil parish of Thornbury.
In the historic county of Gloucestershire.
Modern Authority of South Gloucestershire.
1974 county of Avon.
Medieval County of Gloucestershire.

OS Map Grid Reference: ST63359068
Latitude 51.61396° Longitude -2.53021°

Thornbury Castle has been described as a certain Masonry Castle, and also as a probable Palace.

There are major building remains.

This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law*.

Description

Thornbury Castle is a building of the highest architectural importance. It is one of the last great baronial castles to be built in the old castellated style, (although the lord's residential south front is devoid of defensive architecture), and one of the last castles to provide quarters for a private army. The existing castle represents all that was completed of a reconstruction of the older buildings; it was commenced in 1511 by the third Duke of Buckingham and was still unfinished at his execution in 1521. The older buildings lying east of the Court Quadrant include the Great Hall which had a central hearth, suggesting it was of a date not later than the 14th century (Simpson).
There were three parks: New Park (enclosed c 1511), Marlwood and Eastwood. (See ST 69 SW 14, SE 11 & ST 68 NW 19).
Built 1510-11 for the Duke of Buckingham, incorporating parts of a house of circa 1330. In 1521 the Duke was arrested and executed and the building work ceased. Some repairs and alterations were carried out between 1521 and 1554, when the family estates were returned to the Duke's son. The house then seems to have remained uninhabited until the 1720s. It was partly restored in 1809-11 and more extensively in 1854-5. It is now a hotel.
A manor house built by Hugh de Audley on this site is first documented during the early 14th century. In 1498 it was inherited by Edward Stafford, the third Duke of Buckingham who started to rebuilt the house in 1507. In 1510 he was granted a licence to crenellate. He also extended the surrounding parkland. (PastScape)

All existing buildings begun 1510-1511. Inscription over Inner Gate reads: "This gate was begun the year of Oure Lorde God MCCCCCXI the ij yere of the reyne of Kynge Henri the VIIJ, by me Edw' Duc of Bukkyngha', Erle of Herforde, Stafforde and Northamto'". Building continued until 1521 (one stack is dated 1514) when the duke was executed. The site incorporated a previous house begun circa 1330 (to the east of the inner court). Partly roofed in 1720. Partly restored in 1811 for Lord Henry Howard and finally restored in 1854 by Anthony Salvin for Henry Howard. Total site consists of Outer Court to west (see below), Inner Court to east, and an enclosed walled garden to the south of the south range of Inner Court. Inner Court All ashlar. All roofs concealed, mixture of lead, and modern tiles. Stacks of ashlar, rubble and brick-two particularly fine rubbed and carved brick chimneys on south range with heraldic badges and decorative patterns. U-plan. West Range Outer Elevation Intended to be symmetrical with 6 projecting multiangular towers; only the southernmost 2 towers were completed to full 4 storeys although without crenellations. Remainder of range is 2 storeys; C19 gabled attic storey above tower to right of gate. Central Inner Gate has heavily moulded 4-centred arch with smaller doorway to left under square hood mould; above is inscription, armorial bearings and crests 1, 2 and 3-light casements with 4-centred heads, moulded mullions, all under hood moulds with carved stops. Cross loops at base of major towers. Some 18 pane glazing bar sashes to right of Gate. Continuous string moulding over first and second floor windows. South range Outer Elevation The only completed range and one of the finest examples of Tudor/Aspendicular domestic architecture, carefully restored by Salvin. Four-storey multiangular tower with machicolations at west; adjoining taller, narrow stair tower with single light windows. Main part has embattled parapet. Mixture of single, double and multi-light mullion and transom casement windows with cusped and plain 4-centred heads (some have ogee heads. Three projecting full height bays: canted to west; angled in centre; and to east, cinquefoil in plan on upper stage with convex mouldings and 5 points in plan on ground floor with concave mouldings. String courses above first floor and below parapet. East end is irregular - unfinished or destroyed. All inner elevations are more simple with 2-light casement on ground floor. North range has projecting stair tower. South range has 1-4-1-light mullion and transom oriel window with cusped heads also stack projecting from first floor. Interior Mostly Salvin's work. Plain panelling. Four-centred arch-headed doors; door band and bed pulls are all fashioned out of Stafford knots. Some early C16 tiles on ground floor (small lavatory). Dining room has C19 depressed 4-centred arch fireplace with quatrefoils above and painted heraldic panels around. Heraldic glass by Thomas Willemint, 1858. First Floor Room 4 (Duke's Chamber) has remains of early C16 fireplace: depressed 4-centred arch and carved panels. Room 7 has complete early C17 fireplace; depressed 4-centred arch with carved spandrels and decorative quatrefoils above. (Listed Building Report)

A Royal licence to crenellate was granted in 1510 July 6 (Click on the date for details of this licence.).

Comments

Licence granted in 1510 to Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham Building took place from 1511-21, incorporating parts of a house of circa 1330, forfeited to Henry VIII in 1521, converted to a country house in 1720. Restored in 1811 and 1854. Substantially intact and now a luxury hotel.
Links to archaeological and architectural databases, mapping and other online resources

Data >
PastScape   County HER       Listing   I. O. E.
Maps >
Streetmap   NLS maps   Where's the path   Old-Maps      
Data/Maps > 
Magic   V. O. B.   Geology   LIDAR   Open Domesday  
Air Photos > 
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Photos >
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Sources of information, references and further reading
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The bibliography owes much to various bibliographies produced by John Kenyon for the Council for British Archaeology, the Castle Studies Group and others.
Suggestions for finding online and/or hard copies of bibliographical sources can be seen at this link.
Minor archaeological investigations, such as watching brief reports, and some other 'grey' literature is most likely to be held by H.E.R.s but is often poorly referenced and is unlikely to be recorded here, or elsewhere, but some suggestions can be found here.
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*The listed building may not be the actual medieval building, but a building on the site of, or incorporating fragments of, the described site.
This record last updated 19/04/2017 07:50:41

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