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Coventry City Wall

In the civil parish of Coventry.
In the historic county of Warwickshire.
Modern Authority of Coventry.
1974 county of West Midlands.
Medieval County of Warwickshire.

OS Map Grid Reference: SP33567931
Latitude 52.41089° Longitude -1.50795°

Coventry City Wall has been described as a certain Urban Defence.

There are masonry ruins/remnants remains.

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law.
This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law*.

Description

Coventry did not become a walled city until the second half of the C14, but there was a town ditch and entrance bars in the C13, and possibly even in the late C12. The only physical evidence for an early ditch is one 20' wide and 9' deep to the NE of Well Street Gate, and sections have been found on the South side of Smithford Street aligned with the Spon Street bars, and continuing North and East to Barr's Hill and St Nicholas' Church. The North and East sides of the town may well have not been ditched. A licence for murage was obtained in 1329, but work does not seem to have begun for some time. A licence to crenellate was obtained in 1363, and in 1385, a licence was granted to complete the work. The wall was constructed using material in situ; therefore a ditch surrounded the whole circuit. Twelve gates were erected at strategic points, these being built from c.1367 onwards, most being completed by 1411. In addition, there were at least 20 intermediary towers, of which 15 lay on the South side of the town between Hill Gate and Gosford Gate. The sections to the NE of the Priory appear to have been the last section built, in the C15. During the C17th Civil War, the three miles of city walling were comparable in strength to London's City Walls, with four strong gates guarded by 400 guards. In 1662, Charles II ordered that the walls should be pulled down because Coventry had harboured rebels after the restoration. However, this was revoked in 1672, and efforts were made to preserve the circuit. Attempts were made to convert both gates and towers to domestic habitation in the late C17 and early C18, but from the middle of the C18 onwards, the gates and walls were gradually removed. In 1870, only two gates remained, the Swanswell (Priory) Gate, and Cook Street Gate. Between these gates lies the only substantial surviving section of the city wall, although not to its original height. It is constructed of two outer skins of ashlar masonry with a rubble core. (PastScape–ref. VCH)

A Royal licence to crenellate was granted in 1363 Nov 20 (Click on the date for details of this licence.).
It has been incorrectly suggested that a Royal licence to crenellate was granted in 1364 Nov 3.

Comments

Length of C15 wall which was originally over 2 miles long. Murage granted 1329 but work probably didn't start until 1364 and circuit was only finally completed in 1540. Licence to crenellate granted 1363. Map reference for Swanswell Gate.
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Sources of information, references and further reading
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This record last updated 16/11/2016 08:36:27

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