Several lists of Northumbland's fortifications were recorded in the late
medieval period. Most of these are extensively transcribed in Bates's The
Border Holds of Northumberland; the full references are in King's Castellarium
Anglicanum and are copied out below. The links at the bottom of the page lead to further transcribed abridged
versions of these lists with links to the specific Gatehouse site record.
- Survey I: Nomina Castrorum et Fortaliciorum infra
from Brit. Mus., Harleian M.S., 309, fols. 202b-203b, datable to the earlier
part of 1415. Printed in Bates,
13-18 also in Hodgson, pt. 3, i, 26-30
- Survey II: The list, compiled in 1509: 'Holdis and
Towneshyppes too lay in Garnysons of horsmen', P.R.O. Chapter House Book B. 1/24 Northumberland,
fol. 116, printed in Bates, 23-4;
also Hodgson, pt. 1, 339-40 (In spite of the allusion to 'Holds and Townships',
every one of the posts mentioned is, or was, the site of some sort of fortification.)
- Survey III: View of the Castles, Towers, Barmekyns
and Fortresses of the Frontier of the East and Middle Marches, made by Sir Robert Bowes and
Sir Ralph Ellerker in 1541; Brit. Mus., Cotton. MS. Caligula, B. vii, fol.
636. Printed in Bates, 29-49 (slightly
abridged) with an addendum xvi-xvii; also Hodgson, pt. 3, ii, 171-242,
printed on the bottom of the pages, below the text of Survey IV
- Survey IV: A Book of the State of the Frontiers
and Marches betwixt England and Scotland, written by Sir Robert Bowes in 1550, taken from Brit. Mus.
Cotton. MS. Titus, F.13, a copy of the original (see Bates, 51, n185).
Printed in Hodgson, pt.3, ii, 171-248; excerpts in Bates,
- Survey V: The Survey Booke of Norham and Ilandshire,
taken and made in the 3rd year of our Sovereign Lady Elizabeth, Queen
of England, etc. (1561)
by Anthony Roone and Thomas Bates. Printed in Raine, ND, 15-27; excerpts
in Bates, 52-3
- Survey VI: Report of the Commissioners on the Borders
(1584) under Lord Hunsdon; largely the work of Christopher Dacre. Printed in Bates,
69-80, with explanation of Dacre's map at xvii-xviii.
- A further list of 1715 is transcribed in Hodgson, J.C., 1916, 'Notices
of Ruined Towers, Chapels, Etc., in Northumberland circa 1715' Archaeologia
Aeliana [series 3] Vol 13.
Bates, Cadwallader John, 1891, The Border Holds of Northumberland (The Society of Antiquities Newcastle upon Tyne)
Hodgson, J., 1820-1858, History of Northumberland (Newcastle upon Tyne) (In three parts and several volumes)
Raine, J., 1852, History and Antiquities of North Durham (London)