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In 1383 Nov 13, Alexander, episcopus Ebor (Archbishop Alexander) was granted, by Richard II, (In year 7 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Reste (Rest Park, Sherburn in Elmet)
Licence for Alexander, archbishop of York, to crenellate and embattle his manor of Reste, and to erect a fortlet there. By signet letter. (CPR)

Alexander, episcopus Ebor ... manerium suum de ... Reste (et quoddam forcelettum ibidem pro voluntate sua pro fortificatione ejusdem manerii facere ...) (Turner and Parker)

Granted at Westminster. Grant by signet letter.


licensed as a forcelettum.

The licence to crenellate may also be motivated by several reasons, threat of violence, a need to establish authority through an expression of noble status and as a 'sweetener' from the king to encourage Alexander to come on side.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Alexander Neville (c.1332–1392)
Alexander Neville (c.1332–1392), archbishop of York, was a younger son of Ralph Neville, fourth Lord Neville of Raby. An appallingly bad archbishop who had by 1383 made many enemies in the North.

Although Alexander Neville played an important role in defending the northern border against the more than usually dangerous threats of a Scottish invasion in 1383–4, his preoccupation with local disputes within Yorkshire itself seems to have delayed his direct involvement in the bitter national political factions of the period. However, in 1385 the archbishop took the unexpected and fateful step of joining Richard II's intimate court circle, partly no doubt because of the local political alliance he had recently forged with the king's leading counsellor, Sir Michael de la Pole of Hull (d. 1389), partly because of Richard's desire to enlist the active support of at least one powerful prelate, and partly no doubt because of Neville's own urgent need for protection in the highest quarters. (Dobson)

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.