The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1346 March 12, R. Episcopus London (Ralph Stratford Bishop of London) was granted, by Edward III, (In year 20 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Storteford (Waytemore Castle, Bishops Stortford)
Licence for R. bishop of London, to crenellate his castle of Storteford and the tower of the same. By p.s. (CPR)

Episcopus London ... castrum suum de Storteford et turrim ejusdem ... Storteford. (Turner and Parker)

Granted at Westminster. Grant by privy seal.


Licence probably relates to a reoccupation of the castle.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Ralph (Hatton) Stratford (d. 1354)
Ralph (Hatton) Stratford (d. 1354), bishop of London 1340-1354. Had been a king's clerk in 1332 and in 1345 he was a member of Lionel of Antwerp's council of regency during Edward III's absence in Flanders in July, and in November of that year he was appointed to treat with the papal envoy about relations with France.

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.