The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1322 June 23, W. Episcopus Exon (Bishop Walter Stapledon) was granted, by Edward II, (In year 15 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Exon (Exeter Episcopal Palace and Cathedral Close)
Licence for W. bishop of Exeter and his successors to enclose with a stone wall the close and dwelling place of his episcopal palace in Exeter, and to crenellate the same. By K. (CPR)

W. Episcopus Exon ... clausum et mansum ... palatii sui episcopatus Exon., in Exon., Devon. (Turner and Parker)

Granted at York. Grant by King.


Licences to crenellate granted to Bishop Peter Quinel in 1290 and Bishop Walter Stapledon in 1322. Some slight remains of the cathedral close and palace buildings survive in later buildings.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Walter Stapledon (1261-1326)
Walter Stapledon, was the first of a series of 14th century Bishops of Exeter drawn from aristocratic families... His enthronement, in October 1308, was unusually splendid and the feast, which followed it, is said to have consumed the revenues of the see for an entire year... The Bishop early became one of Edward II's privy counsellors and, in 1320, was created Lord High Treasurer. (King)

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.