The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1311 June 1, Alexander de Bykenore, clericus (Alexander of Bicknor) was granted, by Edward II, (In year 4 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Ruardyn (Ruardean)
Licence to Alexander de Bykenore, king's clerk, to crenellate his dwelling house of Ruardyn, co. Gloucester. By p. s. (CPR)

Alexander de Bykenore, clericus ... mansum suum ... Ruardyn, Glouc. (Turner and Parker)

Granted at Berwick-on-Tweed. Grant by privy seal.


The house may have been useful as a stop between Westminister and Bristol (and then to Ireland).
Robert (Urry) had sold it by 1306 to Alexander of Bicknor. Alexander, a clerk who was appointed treasurer of Ireland in 1307, agreed in 1311 to settle the manor on the marriage of his niece Margery and Geoffrey of Langley but he retained it in 1325 when the reversion was granted to Richard of Carrant and his wife Margery, presumably the niece. (VCH)

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Bicknor , Alexander (d. 1349)
Bicknor had served as a tax collector in Gloucestershire. He was elected Archbishop of Dublin early in 1311 although did not actual take the seat until 1317. He remained a royal servant and was justiciar for Ireland. Long service to the crown but this licence issued early in that career. Presumably the licence is connected with the election to the see of Dublin.

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.