The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1252 Feb 21, the burgessess were granted, by Henry III, (In year 36 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Gannoc (Degannwy Town)
Grant that the town of Gannoc shall be a free borough, and each of the burgesses of that town shall have within the said borough half an acre to build and make a curtillage and without the borough two acres of arable land for 2s. to be paid each year to the king's bailiff there, that is 12d. at Easter and 12d. at Michaelmas; and the said burgesses may enclose the said town with a dike and wall; and the shall have a merchant gild with a hanse and other liberties and customs therto pertaining, ... (CCalR)

Granted at Westminster.


Borough Charter. Defence was not unimportant in Wales but clearly civic pride the real issue here.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

Please do inform Gatehouse if you see any errors, can add information or can otherwise help to improve this resource. Please contact Gatehouse.

Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.