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In 1252-3, communes Norwici were supposedly granted, by Henry III, (In year 37 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Norwici (Norwich City Wall)

Although this document has been considered by some as a licence to crenellate it is rejected as a licence.


King writes "Dugdale, Mon., iv, 14; habuerunt licenciam communes Norwici includendi eandem villam cum fossis. The Chronicle quoted here dates this to 37 Hen. III (i.e. 1252-3) and also to A.D. 1209, but as we are also told told that this occured 60 years after an event in 1194, it is likely that the regnal year gives the correct reading, more or less." This is not a licence to crenellate, although a royal licence to enclose the town with a ditch has a similar quality (some ditches, possible originally of saxon date, may have already existed.)

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.