The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1195, Hugh de Say was supposedly granted, by Richard I, a Royal licence to crenellate (Bleddfa Castle)

Although this document has been considered by some as a licence to crenellate it is rejected as a licence.


In 1195 Hugh de Say was licensed by Richard I to refortify the castle. (Salter)

This reported licence seems actually to be a royal grant of money (five pounds) to repair the castle. Not, in a meaningful sense, a licence to crenellate.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Hugh de Say (b c. 1156-1197)
Hugh de Say (b c. 1156-1197) of Richard's Castle, Herefordshire, England. He married Mabel Marmion c. 1180, daughter of Robert Marmion and Maud de Beauchamp. He was Keeper of Norton Castle (in Radnor), and fought under Richard I in Normandy in 1194. In 1196, he and Roger de Mortimer of Wigmore were defeated near Radnor by the Welsh prince Rhys. He appears to have been living in early 1197, but died s.p.m. before Michaelmas of that year. His widow, Mabel, was remarried by Easter 1201 to one Reynold, whose identity is not further known, and she was deceased before Michaelmas 1210. (CP: Vol VI(453), Vol IX(255-258); AR: Line 177(2-3).)

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.