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The Aglionby Platt

In the British Library collection is preserved a map dated, on the reverse, Dec 1590 and entitled 'A platt of the opposete borders of Scotland to the west marches of England'. This had been kept in an atlas of Saxton's county maps that had belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I's Secretary of State. This was made by, or by an attendant of, Edward Aglionby, a prominent member of the Cumberland gentry (see below). A note on the map states;
"The moste of these places on the Scotish syde are tower and stone houses, with some fewe plenashed Townes, as Dunfreis, Annand, Loughmaben, and such like; for the rest not put downe, they ar but onsetts or stragling houses, th' inhabitants followers of some of these above described. For those on the English Coaste, they are referred to the Tract lately sent to your L. of the Description of them in particular."

The map was reproduced and published in Archaeologia in 1829 by H. Ellis (see below) and on numerous subsequent occasions with more or less intelligent discussion. The purpose of this web page and the associated listing of the sites is to challenge the apparent often made assumption that all these sites were 'towers' and to attempt to identify all the sites.

Generally it shows the houses of the major Border Reivers of the Scottish West March. Although the descriptive note makes clear that these houses were of different forms they are all shown with the same symbol (a circle with central dot, surmounted by a square with central dot (occasionally omitted) surmounted by a small triangle (occasionally omitted)), a total of 147 such places are shown. Six places; the city and castle of Carlisle, the town and tower of Dumfries, the town and large tower of Annan, the castle of Lochmaben, the castle of Rockcliffe and the castle of Bewcastle are shown with larger, more complex, symbols. The places shown are generally named with a place-name but a good number are identified by the name of the house resident (i.e Ro: forsters). The bridges over the Eden at Carlisle, the Wampool at Woodside and the Waver near Abbeytown are shown. A scale in miles is given. The Solway Firth is enlivened with a sketch of a vessel with a full single square sail.

The map is labelled in a legible 16th century hand with a few abbreviations the most common being the the letter thorn (in a very y shaped form rather than as þ) surmounted by an e for 'the'. The map has clearly been drawn by someone with knowledge of the area and with a reasonable degree of cartographic skill for the period, although it is not without error and some places may be placed on the wrong side of a river and the spacing between sites may represent riding distances rather than direct 'crow flies' distances. It is certainly a map that needs to be read with care and thought by modern people used to the accurate mapping of the Ordnance Survey.

Four additions are made in a much cruder less legible hand, presumably that of William Cecil. These were transcribed by Armstrong, on his reproduction of the map (a copy of which is used to illustrate this website), as Johnstone, Kyrkandor, Brakenhill and Rosetree. The first appears to be added below 'ye Loughwoode', high up the River Annan, and probably shows this was a Johnstone house rather than marking another house. The other three are all houses on the River Esk, in England, and probably represent houses personally known to Cecil or his attendant clerks.

Although Aglionby makes it clear he was recording towers and 'stone houses' many writers and the archaeological databases have come to assume that all the places marked with the simple symbol were towers. Most sites are entirely lost (of 153 buildings marked only 25 have significant remains and 12 have some slight remains making accurate identification of form difficult), a few were demolished in more recent times and are reasonably well described but generally there is no evidence for the form of well over a hundred of these buildings. Working from analogue, across the whole of the marches, trying to discover the social status of the likely inhabitant and looking at the surrounding landscape to try to estimate the amount of income and the form of building that could be supported by such income I suggest the below table of numbers. If anything I think it is likely I've overestimated the size of lost buildings so probably twice as many pelehouses as towers. However, using this method would probably suggest the massive Hermitage Castle was a modest house if there were no remains.

Form of buildingsee 'Taxonomic Confusion' below for full discussion of formstotal numbernumber with remains
  • Masonry Castlea large complex building with a curtain wall and several residential towers-6-6
  • Tower House (baronial)a large freestanding residential tower of of baronial status - 4 or more storeys*-10-11-3
  • Tower House (gentry)a freestanding residential tower of of gentry status - 3 or more storeys*-36-57-16-19
  • Chamber Tower (Pele Tower)a residential tower of of gentry status, attached to a hall - 3 or more storeys*-2-6-1
  • Pele-House (bastle)a rectangular building of a chamber over a cow byre usually a tenanted residence*-62-95-6-10
  • Pelea modest square or rectangular building of unmortared masonry otherwise similar to a pele-house*-0-11-0-1
  • Othertowns, churches and other such-6-2
    *Rooms in the roof space are not considered as a storey

    As can be seen there is a distinct tendency for highly status and larger buildings to survive. Pele-houses and peles, which were generally built on boulder plinths without dug foundations, were smaller and certainly easier to demolish than larger towers. In many cases I consider these buildings were removed and replaced by more modern farmhouses built on the same site, or possible on a closely adjacent site. The higher areas of the marches have had considerable depopulation so there are less farm sites now than in 1590. Some modest pele-houses and peles may now be represented by sheep stells (sheepfolds) and careful examination of such stells may show some evidence of an earlier existence as a dwelling (something which may have been overlooked by field archaeologists misinformed into considering all the houses on the platt to be tower houses).

    A written account of the families of the area, written by Thomas Musgrave for Lord Burghley in 1583, is transcribed, as an appendix, below.

    The 1590 Aglionby Platt
    R.B. Armstrong's facsimile of Aglionby Platt, reproduced by permission of the National Library of Scotland, is used here for it's clarity. A scan of the original is available at the British Library Online Gallery.
    Key To MapBox map
    • Star - castle
    • Circle - large tower house
    • Square - small tower house
    • Drop - chamber tower
    • Triangle - pele house
    • Cross - other
    • Dark green is used for sites where the location is certain.
    • Light green is used where the location is probably at or very close to the given map reference.
    • Orange is used for sites with a considerable degree of uncertainty.
    • Red for suggested house sites which are rejected as such.

    Taxonomic Confusion

    Tower Houses, Pele Towers, Pele Houses, Peles, Bastle Houses and Bastles

    These terms, the generic term tower and the related terms (i.e. Bastle House) and alternative spellings (Peel; Bastel) are variously used by different authors to mean several different forms of building, quite often using the same term for different building and different terms for the same building, thrown in to this mess are the terms Strong House, Stone House and Fortified House which are generally used with less clear definitions to cover more vague monuments.

    A good number of authors dislike the use of the term pele to refer to the smaller towers. In some cases the term originated as a reference to timber defences, probably specifically a timber palisade and was used with this sense in contemporary 13th century documents but it was, at least occasionally, in use for stone buildings of some form by the 16th century. The small and dated book of 1894 Peel: its meaning and derivation by George Neilson gives some contemporary examples. However, it should also be noted that the Celtic word pil can mean a fortified place and this does get spelt in various ways including peel. The antiquarian John Leland used the term pile, in the sense of heap of stones, quite often when referring to buildings, including tower houses. The general term pele is one that was widely used by common people to mean a fortified building of many forms and, for these people, the origin, whether Latin, Celtic or some confabulation, was not important (see the discussion in the RCAHMS Inventory for Roxburghshire transcribed below showing how the term was also used for strongly built timber and earth buildings). There are a good number of examples of 'learned men' making assumptions that local people were using the term to refer to some form of tower house when, in fact, they were using it for more modest stone buildings.

    The Historic England monument type thesaurus classifications for fortified houses are;

    In Scotland the RCAHMS classification are;

    These sets of classifications certainly has a number of problems. There is nothing to actually suggest most of the buildings generally called pele towers were only occupied in 'times of trouble' and some other axioms are questionable but the major issue may be the confabulation of the terms 'Pele-Tower' and 'Pele-House' terms which have had significantly different meanings to some important authors. The Monuments Protection Programme merely lumped all terms under Tower House.

    The adoption of these problematic taxonomies is certainly not universal amongst modern writers, certainly not by those who are historians and earlier writers had many, usually idiosyncratic, terminologies of their own. Generally modern, academic, writers use the term 'tower house' as a general term for all buildings of three or more storeys using the description to differentiate between buildings of different types. The one term which seems to have had a widespread uptake is the use of bastle for the rectangular chamber over byre buildings of 16th-17th date. Of this usage Philip Dixon, in an article of 1979 writes, with considerable authority:

    Among the surviving sixteenth-century structures two broad divisions are apparent: those in the first group are tall buildings, normally with battlements and all perhaps originally surrounded by courtyards containing domestic offices. Their builders called them 'towers' or 'hall-houses' or, occasionally, 'peles' or 'peels', and they are now normally called 'towerhouses'. Those in the second group may themselves divided into two categories: in the first place are large rectangular houses, sometimes with projecting staircase turrets and seldom with crenelations. Contemporaries called these 'bastles' or 'bastle-houses', or sometimes 'towers'. Secondly there are small roughly built barn-like houses with thick drystone walls. These were called several different names: 'bastles', 'stronghouses', 'stonehouse' or 'pelehouses' or more recently 'peles', and many in the sixteenth-century clearly regarded these names as interchangeable. Strict adherence to sixteenth-century usage is thus undesirable, but a recent account has taken the name 'bastle' to refer solely to to the smallest of the fortified houses (Ramm et al. 1970). This unfortunate practice excludes the very type of building normally called a bastle (see further Dixon 1972) ... the Scottish Royal Commission's useful distinction between 'bastle-houses' (large houses) [He uses the example of Doddington and Hebburn for this type of building.] and 'pelehouse' (small and rough houses, now often called 'bastles').

    Thus Dixon (and it has to be said a number of other authors like Peter Ryder) seems to put under the one term 'towerhouse' that which other authors consider as two relatively distinct sets of buildings; Tower Houses and Pele Towers, but he also point out that the term Bastle also refers to two distinct sets of building. As he points out in Shielings and Bastles the term bastle is used exclusively for the smaller 'pelehouse' and later authors have generally followed this precedent rather than that of the Scottish Royal Commission (which itself now does not use the terms 'pelehouse' and 'bastle-house' but does now use the term 'Pele-House' but as a synonym for the English pele-tower), with 'true' bastle-houses being called 'tower-houses' or 'strong houses'. However, most authors (including Ryder) do not differentiate between bastles and consider Dixon's Bastle-houses as belonging to the Bastle class although at the' top' end of the group. Other writers, such as Alastair Maxwell-Irving, further differentiate the smaller buildings between pele-houses sometimes with vaulted floor and with mortared walls and unmortered peles without vaulted floors. When looking at 16th and 17th century sources a reference to a bastile is likely to refer to a gentry status building of the form now usually called 'Tower House'. The term came from France and its use probably relates to the influence of french culture o the Scottish court and gentry. Its use in England was rare until the late 20th century. When looking at modern sources the term bastle will relate to modest status buildings of the form of a chamber over a byre or store which contemporaries probably called a 'stone house' or 'pele-house'.

    There is a continuum or spectrum for all these late medieval buildings of the form of residential chambers over a ground floor non-residential space. One way to resolve the difficulties of describing the complexities of this continuum is simply to classify all such buildings under the same name (tower house). For this writer this appears to be a cope out and should be compared to not bothering to identify the colours of the rainbow. Defining medieval social class can also be somewhat tricky, particularly in this border area where family and clan ties exist over and around manorial systems, but may be a bases on which some form of differentiation between buildings in the 'tower house' continuum can be made. There can be some architectural similarities between pele towers built by wealth non-nobles and tower houses built by poorer members of the nobility but generally the difference in social status is clear in the buildings. Similarly the poorest members of the gentry may well have lived in two storey chamber over byre 'pele-houses' although that form of building is most likely to be the residence of reasonably wealthy tenant farmers.

    As with the spectrum of light there are issues - Although we are all taught there are seven colours in the spectrum in fact there are infinitely many but just six main groups (Indigo is a really a form of blue - Issac Newton suggested seven because of his spiritual and numerological beliefs and not for rational reasons) and there are colours that fall outside the spectrum (there is no purple in a rainbow). Similarly some buildings fall outside the simple continuum (The gatehouse of Tynemouth Abbey is really an independent tower house over a gateway but will hardly be described as such). However such difficulties should be the source for informed study and understanding and should not be avoided for the sake of ease or the even more odious excuse of 'simplicity' - with the implication that the general public are incapable of understanding complex arguments.

    Generally great care needs to be taken when reading anything about the fortified buildings of 16th century Scottish marches. The relatively few authors who take the time to explain the diversity of buildings and try to describe the building forms (i.e. Alastair Maxwell-Irving) can be considered as more reliable but it is most unlikely that any two such authors will use the same terms in precisely the same way.

    For writers who do not make clear what the form of building is, and who are assuming the reader knows what they mean, the following seems to be the usual meaning:


    (This is a bibliography of texts covering the general discussion of the Platt, the Scottish Borders in the 16th century and, particularly, the fortified buildings of borders. Site specific bibliographies are given on site pages)
    Primary Sources
  • Ellis, H., 1829, 'Copy of a manuscript tract addressed to Lord Burghley, illustrative of the Border topography of Scotland, AD 1590, with a platt or map of the Borders taken in the same year' Archaeologia Vol. 22 pp. 161-71 (online copy)
  • Masson, D. (ed), 1884, The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland (edited and abridged) 1st series
  • Sanderson, R.P. (ed), 1891, Survey of the Debateable and Border Lands Adjoining the Realm of Scotland and Belonging to the Crown of England, Taken A.D. 1604 (Alnwick)
  • Bain, J., 1894, Calendar of Letters and Papers relating to the Borders of England and Scotland (Edinburgh: HMSO) Vol. 1 1560-1594 (online copy)
  • Bain, J., 1896, Calendar of Letters and Papers relating to the Borders of England and Scotland (Edinburgh: HMSO) Vol. 2 1595-1603 (online copy)
  • Boyd, Wm (ed), 1903, Calendar of State Papers relating to Scotland and Mary, Queen of Scots (London: HMSO) Vol. 3 (online copy)
  • Secondary Sources
  • Armstrong, R.B., 1883, The History of Liddesdale, Eskdale, Ewesdale, Wauchopedale and the Debateable Land (Edinburgh)
  • Dixon, Philip, 1972, 'Shielings and Bastles: A reconsideration of some problems' Archaeologia Aeliana Vol. 1 pp. 249-58
  • Dixon, Philip, 1979, 'Towerhouses, Pelehouses and Border Society' Archaeological Journal Vol. 136 pp. 240-252
  • Dixon, Philip, 1993, 'Mota, Aula et Turris: the manor house of the Anglo-Scottish Border' in G. Meirion Jones, Seigneurial Buildings in England and France pp. 22-48
  • Dixon, Philip, 2013, 'Border Towers: A Cartographic Approach' in Jeremy Ashbee and Julian Luxford (eds), Newcastle and Northumberland Roman and Medieval Architecture and Art (British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions XXXVI)
  • Hyslop, J. and Hyslop, R., 1912, Langholm as it was: a history of Langholm and Eskdale from the earliest times p. 320- (online copy)
  • Jones, C.P., 1969, 'King James I and the Western Border' Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Vol. 69 pp. 129-51 (online copy)
  • Macdonald Fraser, George, 1971, The Steel Bonnets (London: Barrie and Jenkins)
  • Maxwell-Irving, Alastair, 2000, The Border Towers of Scotland: Their History and Architecture The West March
  • Maxwell-Irving, Alastair, 2011-12, 'How Many Tower-houses were there in the Scottish Borders? A few observations' The Castle Studies Group Journal No. 25 pp. 224-240 (online copy)
  • Maxwell-Irving, Alastair, 2014, The Border Towers of Scotland: Their Evolution and Architecture
  • Perriam, Denis R. and Robinson, John, 1998, The Medieval Fortified Buildings of Cumbria (Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society)
  • Ramm, H.G., McDowell, R.W. and Mercer, Eric, 1970, Shielings and Bastles (HMSO)
  • Online Sources
  • Aglionby's Borders of Scotland, 1590 (British Library, Royal ms 18.d.III, fol 76)
    This uncoloured, ink on parchment, scale map (10 miles = 3 3/4 inch) was made by or for Edward Aglionby, for Lord Burghley in December 1590, and was kept by the latter in an atlas largely made up of proof copies of Saxton's county maps. It bears the title 'A platt of the opposete borders of Scotland to the west marches of England'. Cardinal points are given and north is at the top. Rivers are shown in some detail, and topography suggested by 'sugar-loaf' hills. The emphasis is on towns and castles on the Scottish side of the borders. Burghley has added a few extra place-names in his own hand, such as Kirkander (Kirkandrews Tower, Netherby). On the English side, the relatively few places named stretch from Bewcastell in the north to Bolness, Cardronock, Skinburnness and the Chapel of the Grune.
    An image of the map can be found in the British Library Online Gallery
    The map is reproduced and discussed in Henry Ellis, 'Copy of a Manuscript Tract addressed to Lord Burghley...', Archaeologia, Jan 1829 p. 162
    See also R A Skelton & John Summerson, A Description of the Maps and Architectural Drawings in the Collection made by William Cecil, First Baron Burghley now at Hatfield House, Oxford, Roxburghe Club (1971), p. 60
    (Cumbria County History Accessed 2 Sept 2015)
  • A Platt of the opposete Borders of Scotland to ye west marches of England
    This is a map of the opposite borders of Scotland and England. It is from an atlas that belonged to William Cecil Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I's Secretary of State. Burghley used this atlas to illustrate domestic matters. This map is interesting because it shows the debatable lands, these were lands between the borders of Scotland and England, claimed by neither and subsequently a lawless no-man's land. Lord Burghley has annotated the map, adding place names at points along the river which forms part of the border, and the river immediately to the right of this which lies on English soil. The title, "A Platt of the opposete Borders of Scotland to ye west marches of England" appears on the reverse with the date: "Dec. 1590". There is a description on the map itself which ends: "for those on the English coast they ar referred to the tract latly sent to your L. of the description of them in particular".
    A scale bar of 4" - 10 [miles] is included.
    (The British Library Online Gallery Accessed 21 Sept 2015)

    Below is a full transcription of Ellis, H., 1829, 'Copy of a manuscript tract addressed to Lord Burghley, illustrative of the Border topography of Scotland, AD 1590, with a platt or map of the Borders taken in the same year' Archaeologia Vol. 22 pp. 161-71 (An online scan of the original is available at Google Books)

    Copy of a Manuscript Tract addressed to Lord Burghley, illustrative of the Border Topography of Scotland, A. D. 1590; with a Platt or Map of the Borders taken in the same Year, both preserved in one of the Royal MSS. in the British Museum: Communicated by Henry Ellis, Esq. F. R. S. Secretary, in a Letter addressed to the Right Honourable the Earl Of Aberdeen, K. T. President.

    Read 31st May 1827.

    British Museum, May 29th, 1827.

    MY LORD,
    AMONG the Royal Manuscripts in the British Museum is a Volume of Saxton's Maps,a published in 1579: upon the Margins of which the names of the Justices of Peace in England at that time, or soon after, are written, with occasional miscellaneous Remarks. Several manuscript Maps and Draughts of Sea-ports, Towns, &c. are added in different places of the Volume, likewise accompanied by Memoranda in the hand-writing of Lord Burghley, to whom the Volume at one time belonged.

    Among these latter Articles is a manuscript Map with the date of December 1590,b entitled, "A Platt of the opposite Borders of Scotland to the West Marches of England." Upon this the different Castles and Houses of strength, with the names of many of the owners, are minutely specified, and I cannot but think that a Copy of it would be valuable for the Archaeologia of the Society of Antiquaries. At the bottom of this Map or Platt is written, "The moste of these places on the Scotish syde are tower and stone houses, with some fewe plenashed Townes, as Dunfreis, Annand, Loughmaben, and such like; for the rest not put downe, they ar but onsetts or stragling houses, th' inhabitants followers of some of these above described. For those on the English Coaste, they are referred to the Tract lately sent to your L. of the Description of them in particular."

    The Tract here alluded to follows a page or two after, and if my judgment does not deceive me, is a curious Abstract of the State of Border Topography towards the close of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. ..

    I have had it transcribed, and here present it to your Lordship and the Society.

    I am, My Lord,

    Your Lordship's faithful servant,


    a Bibl. Reg. 18 D. in. b See the fol. 70.


    There lieth the Lord Warden, his Deputie and Constable.
    The Warden hath charge as Generall in all affairs under her Majestie for the lawes of Marches, according to the auncient Border Lawe, and severall new treatisse.
    His deputie is one of the wardens owne appointing, who hath in charge all particular service, either for defence of England or offence of Scotland. In defence of England, as when any sodden Rode or secreat thifte is made by any Scottes or English borderers, to be ready upon the first showte or fraye with a score at the least of the wardens men, to follow to where the fraie is, or to ryde betwixt them and home, as the service requires. In offence of Scotland when the warden doth make any rode, to go with a competent nomber and take a boutie in Scotland: and that is called a Warden Rode.


    His Constable hath in charge certain tenauntes in and about Carlill, belonging to the demeasnes or mannor of the Castle, which are the Queens tenauntes in socage, who are at all tymes readie at the Constables call, either for service in the castle or in the field, as the Warden shall direct. This Constable rideth most by the wardens direccion at all Assays with his sowldiers and wardens servants.


    Next unto Carlisle westward, is Bourgh Barronrie under the governance of a Steward, who ought to lye at Rockliffe Castle, a castle bwilded by the Lord Dacre, for the readines and defence of all service, either general or perticular.
    This Steward hath in charge all Bourgh Barronrie, and Rockliffe, who at a showt are in readines to meete the Steward to follow the fraye, when any fray riseth within his charge. He hath in charge also that no Scottishe man passe thorough his charge withowt lycence, and that none under his charge passe in Scotland withowt like lycence. In this Steward lyeth all the safetie of the west part of the Wardenrie.


    West of it lyeth the Holme Lordship, under the governement of a Steward who ought to be resident within the Holme for the defence of the Lordship. His service is not so readie as Bourgh to followe frayes, except the fray be amongest themselves: but his service is to bring the men under his charge to do some pece of service, as the Warden shall appoint at all times requisite.


    Behinde the Holme, southward, lyeth Allerdale warde, which consisteth of the Gentlemen and Yeomen of the countrie, everie man under severall governement when the warden doth send for them, either to a daie of marche, or for any other service. This Warde is out of danger if the Steward of Bourgh be carefull.

      Wigdon and Westward.

    Behinde Bourgh is the Barrony of Wigton and Forrest of Westward under the governement of a Steward for therle of Northumberland. His service is to keepe the countrie, and to gwyde and rule the tenauntes in the field when there is any occasion of service.


    Behind it westward lyethe Cauldbeck Lordship, who are for the most part the Lord Whartons tenauntes, guided by a bayliffe when the Warden doth send for them.


    Betwixt it and Peareth, southward, lyeth the Baronry of Graystock, late the Lord Dacres, under the charge of a steward, whose service is often used either to day of march, or to watch and search.


    Betwixt Westward and Inglewood Forrest is Sebbram, the Q. tenauntes under the governement of a bayliffe. His service consisteth in leading to the field so many of those tenauntes, as the warden doth send to him for when he hath occasion to use them.


    Betwixt it and Carlisle is Dalston Lordship, under the governement of a baylif. The tenauntes within the Lordship are the Bishops and other Gentlemens. Theire service is as Sebbrams, but more in readynes to follow frayes & ayde Bourgh.

      Forrest of Englewood.

    From Carlisle to Peareth, betwixt the rivers Eden, and Caudy, is contained the forrest of Inglewood, but divided into severall Charges, as every Gentleman his owne tenauntes. The foundacion or prior Lordship under the Steward for the Deane and Chapter of Carlisle, and the hart of the forrest South of the prior Lordship unto Peareth, are under the governement of a steward for the Queens Majesty. There service is as the rest of the Wardenry at all times when the warden doth send or write.


    There is a Steward, who hath in charge the Queens hammes, which are certain dispersed townes called Hamletes, as Peareth, Leasenby, Scotby, and such. This steward doth bring together all those townships, or some of them, at any time when the warden doth sende for them, either for generall or particular service.


    Upon the east side of Eden lyeth the Baronry of Gilsland under the governement of a Steward who ought to lye at Askerton Castle. In his charge is all the safetie of that Baronry, without either help of warden or other: for that it lyeth somwhat farre of, or as by it self (except the litle Lordship of Corby under the governement of Geo. Salkeld, esq.) This country since the Rebellion is sore spoyled, and ever since worse governed. In him is the like safetie of the country for Cumberland ward as the steward of Bourgh for Allerdale ward.


    Betwixt Gillesland and Lyddesdale lyeth Bewcastle under the governement of a Captain. His charge is only the safety within himself, nether is he trobled to follow fray with others except the fray come to him, nor to defend any, but that none enter through his charge out of Lyddesdale.


    Betwixt Carlisle and the borders lyeth Crosby Baronry, under a Steward for the Bishop of Carlisle. His service is to be at all times ready when any fray riseth either within himself, or within Eden to ryde to the fordes of Eden, where of necessity the theeves must passe.

      Leven or Kirklynton.

    Next it towardes the Borders runneth the river of Leven. Upon which river dwelleth Grames, Etheringtons, and Forsters, and others, under the governance of a bayliffe for a Gentleman, one Mr. Musgrave of Haton lord of that mannor called Kirklynton. But the castle where he should lye is Scaleby. Now in these tenauntes, who are able border men, if they were well governed, is a great quietnes for staunching of theft, for they are the onely men that ride both into England and Scotland, who cannot be letted without their masters residence, or carefull watch of the country within them.


    Betwixt them and Scotland runneth the river Eske, upon both sides of which water dwelleth the best Grames, under no governement except the Warden whose service might be acceptable if they were restrayned in some sort. And for that they never had officer over them to bring in and answer for any offence committed, the Warden tooke this course to take bond of four or more of the cheif of them to answer and bring in any one of them who had done any fault under their protection. And this did make them alwaies fearefull to ryde in England. Now these Grames are not so daungerous to England as others are. But they ride still into Scotland. There is many of them.
    There is more then here is recited belonging to the Wardenry, all Westmorland and Coupland, who are never called to service, but by fyer and beacon, or for general service.

    Your Lordship shall understand that the service of the West Border consisteth in generall and particular service. In the generall service the Country is strong enough to defend themselves against Scotland, and to offend them if they require. The particular or sodaine service consisteth in the Warden by his deputy or constable and officers of Bourgh, Gilsland, and others, with the readines of the inhabitauntes, where the fray or stelth is done. And in this kind of service consisteth the safetie of the Country. And it is a service that the gentlemen or the strength of the country cannot helpe, the most part being farre of, and those neere dare not put their hands into it for feede, or displeasure, except the officers be there themselves to bear the burthen.

      The Governaunce of Scotland most offensive to England lyeth in two Wardes in Annerdale and Lyddesdale.

    In Dunfoyse there lyeth the Warden his deputie and sheriffe. The warden hath in charge all service within the wardenry for the Lawes of Marches, as the warden of England. His deputy hath the like charge to be ready at all assaies, to keepe the country, to withstand or offend England.


    His sheriffe hath the like charge as the constable of Carlisle of certain tenauntes of the King of Scottes, to ride as he shalbe appointed by the warden. But he is little employed, but all is done by the deputy, and captain of Langham.


    This Captain lyeth with a charge at the castle of Langham if there be any breach or great ryding in Scotland by English borderers. And he is called the keeper of Annerdale. His service is opposite against Bewcastle, Eske, and Leven, or Bourgh at sometimes.

    There is no other division of charge that I know in Annerdale as maie be compared to England. For the country of Annerdale is strong by theire great and many surnames, as Maxwelles, Johnstons, Armestronges, Irwaynes, Bells, and Carlells. Every which severall surname defend their owne, as shall appeare by division of their dwellinges hereunderwritten.


    Lyddesdale is the most offensive Country against the west, and middle Marches. It is governed by a keeper who lyeth in Armitage, the cheif strength of Liddesdale. The l. Bodwell hath most land there. The strength of this country consisteth in two surnames, of Armestronges and Elwoodes. These people ride most into Gillesland, Aston-more, and Northumberland.


    Behind Lyddesdale lyeth Tyvidale, which doth never offend the West Border.


    Behind Annerdale lyeth Ewsdale, who are a civill people and never ryde in England.


    There is belonging to either warden a Water-bayliffe, who have liberty at all times to enter the Marches without license, and to carry messages or letters betwixt the Wardens. Theire office is to keepe the entrance of all men without lycense out of either March.

      The severall surnames of the English Borderers and their dwellings.

    Upon both sides of the river dwell the Grames, which is the greatest surname at this daie upon the West Border. For the Grames of Eske and Leven are able to make vC. serviceable men. There dwelleth also a surname of Stories, but they are sore decayed.


    Upon this river also dwelleth many Grames, and above Kirklynton in Sompert dwelleth a great surname of Fosters, and about Hethersgill is a surname of Hetheringtons.


    There dwelleth Fosters, Cwsers, and Nixsons, but sore decayed.


    In Gilsland is no great surname. The Belles is the most. There is a surname of Mylbournes and Hardens, but they are not many.


    There is fowre surnames there, Lyddalls, Glastes, and Huntingtons, Hodgesons. But there is not many of none of them.

      Musgrave and Salkeld.

    The greatest surname of the gentlemen within the wardenry, is Musgraves and Salkelds.

      The severall surnames of the Borderers of Scotland and their dwellinges.

    Betwixt Eske and Sarke dwelleth the surname of Johnsons, called the Johnsons of Greatney.


    Above them dwelleth Kinmont and Armestrong, and about him dwelleth C. able men all Armestronges.


    About Kirtle is a surname of Irwyns, a surname of proper men.


    About them is there a great surname of Bells and Carlisles, who have bin long in feed with the Irwyns.

      Annam. Longwood.

    Towards the meeting of Annam, at the water of Mylke and at both sides thereof at Longwood, dwelleth the lard Johnson, and CCC. sufficient men of his name.

      Dumfrize and Hoddam.

    Betwixt the river of Annam, and the river of Neth towardes and above Dumfrize, is the Lord Maxwell, and the Lord Harrys, and M. Maxwells under them. They have bin in feede with these Johnsons these many years, which is a weakning of Scotland, and a strength to England.
    Here is all the surnames in Annerdale, that are strong at this daie.


    The cheife surnames in Lyddesdale stand upon Armestronges and Elwoods. The cheife Armestrong is of Mangerton, and the cheife Elwood at Cariston. These are two great surnames, and most offensive to England at this daie, for the Armestronges, both of Annerdale and Lyddesdale, be ever ryding.

      The Names of the Officers of the West Wardenry of England.

    Lo. Warden, L. Scroope, Warden of the West Marches.
    His Deputy.
    Constable, Tho. Carleton, esq.
    Steward of Bourgh, Hen. Leigh, esq.
    Steward of Holme, John Seames, esq.
    Steward of Wigden, Rich. Barwys, esq.
    Steward of Graystock, Win. Hutton, gent.
    Bayliffe of Sebram, John Simpson, gent.
    Steward of the forrest of Englewood, John Southwick, esq. for the Lo. Scroope.
    Steward of the Prior Lordship.-John Morrisby, gent, for the Lo. Scroope.
    Steward of Penreth and the Queenes Hams, John Atkinson, gent, for Tho. Knevett.
    Land serjant of Gilsland, Tho. Carleton, esq.
    Captain of Beucastle, Sir Symon Musgrave, and his sonne Thomas.
    Bayliffe of Crosby, Ambrose Carleton, gent.
    Bayliffe of Westlynton, or Leven, John Grame, ats John of Westlynton, for Wm. Musgrave.
    Water keeper of England, Rich. Grame, ats Gares Rich.

      The Names of the Officers for the West Wardenry of Scotland.

    Lo. Warden, Lo. Maxwell, Warden of the West Marches.
    His brother Rob. Maxwell is his Deputy.
    Capt. of Langam, Rob. Maxwell, brother to the Lo. Maxwell.
    Keeper of Lyddesdale, The Lard of Farnehirst, under the young Duke of Lenox.
    The Bayliffe of Annam, Davy Morrow, gent.
    The Water keeper for Scotland, Geo. Belle of Annam, yeoman.

    Here is all the knowne Officers of England and Scotland upon the West Borders in this yeare 1592.

    Yorl. in all dewty
    Edw. Aglionby.

    The History of Parliament Website entry.

    AGLIONBY, Edward II (d.1599), of Carlisle, Cumb.

    Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1558-1603, ed. P.W. Hasler, 1981

    Family and Education

    s. and h. of John Aglionby† of Carlisle by his w., a da. of Richard Salkeld of Corby Castle. educ. Trinity Coll. Camb. 1576. m. Elizabeth, da. of Cuthbert Musgrave of Crookdike, at least 1s. 1da.

    Offices Held

    Mayor, Carlisle 'often'; 'gunner', Carlisle to 1597.


    Of a prominent Carlisle family, Aglionby became a retainer of Thomas Warcop. In 1592 he sent Burghley an account of local administration and politics on both sides of the west border with Scotland and of the state of English military preparedness in the area. Returning home from Corby on a Sunday evening late in 1599, he was attacked and run through with a spear, dying on Christmas Day. His assailants were said to be members of the Carlton and Graham families, against whom he had laid information.

    Hutchinson, Cumb. i. 195; Trans. Cumb. and Westmld. Antiq. and Arch. Soc. n.s. xiii. 100, 105; Border Pprs. i. 391-5, 483, 634; C142/263/53; NRA 6315, p. 5.

    The Royal Commission on the Ancient Monuments of Scotland, 1956, An Inventory of the Ancient and Historical Mounuments of Roxburghshire (Edinburgh: HMSO) Vol. 2 pp. 483-5 (online scan of original text)


    The appellation "pele-house" has been used above of the series of structures described on pp. 421 ff., where its variants "peel", "pyle", and "stone-house" have also been mentioned. In view of the somewhat controversial character of these terms a note on their usage is called for.

    The word "stone-house" explains itself, and is of interest as implying that the majority of the contemporary dwellings were built of less substantial material - an inference borne out by the demand of the English commander, in 1523, for 300 sixpenny axes with which to cut down such houses as were "roved" and had no thatch, so that they would not burn1. Yet even a strong house might be of timber in the 16th century, witness those of the head-men of Tynedale across the Border in 1541. These are described in the report by Sir Robert Bowes and Sir Ralph Ellerker2 as "very stronge houses whereof for the most p[ar]te the utter sydes or walks be made of greatt sware [square] oke trees strongly bounde & Joyned together w[i]th great tenons of the same so thycke mortressed [morticed] that yt wylbe very harde w[i]thoute greatt force & laboure to breake or caste downe any of the said houses the tymber as well of the said walks as rooffes be so greatt & cov[er]ed most p[ar]te w[i]th turves & earthe that they wyll not easyly burne or be sett on fyere." Strong as their houses were, the Tyndalers were said to "rether trust in the strength of suche places [i.e. in the natural strength of the sites] w[i]thout their houses then to the suertye or defence of their houses."

    If the meaning of stone-house is clear enough, that of the synonym, pele-house or pyle, is less obvious. When it first comes on record during the occupation of Edward I of England, the peel or peil is a defensible enclosure of some size, bounded by ditch, mound, and palisade, in some cases isolated but in others forming an annexe to a castle which may itself be either of earthwork and timber or of stone. Such was the fortress of Selkirk, which was begun in 1301-2 under the supervision of Sir Robert Hastings, sheriff of Roxburgh, and Sir Alexander de Balliol, Masters Renaud Lenginour and Stephen of Northampton being responsible for the carpentry and the sheriff of Northumberland for labour supply, carpenters, "mazons" and diggers. This fortress was said to be "a pele with a stone gateway", and it contained a tower which was apparently of wood since the postern on its W. side is specifically mentioned as being faced with stone ; it also had a drawbridge with a stone base, and a portcullis with a good bretasche above it. That the whole "peel" took its name from a part, the palisade3, is clear from such entries as"There are 43 perches of 'pel' yet to make". In 1333 the stone-built castle of enclosure at Loch Doon in Ayrshire was called in English a "pele"4.

    It is in the old sense of a defensible enclosure that the word pele is used in the Act of 1535 "For bigging of Strenthis on the Bordouris", which reads as follows:5 "Item It is Statut and ordanit for Saiffing of men thare guidis and gere vpoun the bordouris in tyme of were and all vther trublous tyme That every landit man duelland in the Inland or vpon the bordouris havand thare ane hundreth pund land of new extent Sail big ane sufficient barmkyn apoun his heretage and landis In place maist conuenient of Stane and lyme contenand thre score futis of the square ane Eln thick and vj Elnys heicht for the Ressett and defens of him his tennentis and thare gudis in trublous tyme with ane touer in the samin for him self gif he thinkis It expedient And that all vther landit men of smallar Rent and Reuenew big pelis and gret strenthis as thai plese for saifing of thare selfis men tennentis and gudis And that all the saides strenthis barmkynnis and pelis be biggit and completit within twa yeris vnder the pane." A barmkin was an enclosure, usually although not necessarily attached to a tower, bounded by a stout wall of stone and lime; its purpose was, as Sir Robert Bowes points out in 1550, "for save grade of cattle", and this Act lays down that barmkins are now to be 60 ft. square, with walls of stone and lime 3 ft. 7 in. thick and 18 ft. 7 in. high. The implication is that its substitute, the pele, was, as of old, to be of earth and timber. That houses as well as enclosure-walls could be protected with a covering of earth is shown both by Ellerker's report, just quoted, and also by the record of events at Littledean (No. 558), where in 1544 the hall and stables were burnt by the English, all but "the stone house which they could not get at it was so mured with earth". Again, Lesley writes of the Borderers6 "Potentiores sibi pyramidales turres, quas pailes vocant, ex sola terra, quae nec incendi, nec nisi magna militum vi ac sudore dejici possunt, sibi construunt"; and from this it is evident that some building describable as a tower,7 and not merely a defensive enciente, could be called by the same name "pele" as had originally meant a surrounding enclosure. In other words, the name of the container had now passed to the content.

    It is in this latter sense too that Leland makes use of the word in 1538, a "pile" for him being any small castle. Sir Robert Bowes does likewise in 1550, when recommending the building of "ij little piles or watche houses" to guard the road east of Kirk Yetholm against the Scots; and Lesley also, in a reference to a proposal made by Henry VIII in 1530 "to big mare pellis and strengthis apoun his bordouris, for resisting of the Scottis men".8 Other Scottish examples of the usage are supplied by the complaint of John Hercules,9 which mentions a "peill house" with byre, hall, and barns as existing in his "toun" and lands of Reidhall; and by the sasine granted in 1547 to John Cairncross of Colmslie, for two husbandlands of town and lands of Smailholm, with the "peill" of the same which John Brown and John Richardson formerly occupied.10

    The last two passages cited evidently refer to some? thing very similar to the structures described in this Inventory (Nos. 931-4), the correspondence between John Hercules' complex of pele-house, hall, barns, and byre with that noted at Slacks (No. 934) being especially close. But a further piece of evidence goes far to clinch the matter. A report drawn up in 1541 by Bowes and Ellerker on the English strengths of the East and Middle Marches, in dealing with the district round Harbottle, says "At a place called the hare clewgh one Rog' hangingeshawes hath lately bylded upon his owne Inherytance a strong pele house of stone in a convenyent place for resystence of the Incourse of theeves of Ryddesdale and he ys not able in defaulte of substance to p'forme & fynyshe the same." "Hare Cleuch" cannot now be identified, but at Beacon Grange, near the Hare Heugh in Alwinton parish, Northumberland, there is a late Tudor building (strong-house)11 which it is difficult, particularly in view of the similarity of the place-names, not to identify with Hangingshawes' unfinished pele-house.12 The building at Beacon Grange measures 37 ft. 9 in. by 24 ft. 7 in. over walls 22 ft. high and 3 ft. 9 in. thick, which are gable-ended. On a stone above the door lintel the initials W P and I B P are rudely carved together with the date 1602, the initials T A M being cut below, possibly at a later time. William Pott was Crown tenant of the place at the beginning of the 17th century, and it has been plausibly conjectured that he took up and completed the pele-house of 1541. Be that as it may, but for having a vaulted basement and an internal stair this building is identical with the Roxburghshire examples which, like it and the other English members of the series,13 are obviously intended "for saiffing of men thare gudis and gere", as the Act of 1535 has it.

    Thus while the term "pele" is evidently not to be regarded as applying solely to structures of the type seen at Beacon Grange or Slacks, it seems to be the one most properly applicable to the houses now under discussion.

    In conclusion, a word must be said on the distinc?tion between pele-house and tower. Light is thrown on this question by a letter, written in 1632 by Sir Robert Kerr of Ancrum, which states clearly the essential outward difference between the two types of building. The writer is advising his son on alterations to be made at Ancrum House14 and, after advocating the retention of the old tower as it stood, with its yett and grilles, in case of emergency, he continues: "By any meanes do not take away the battelment . . . for that is the grace of the house, and makes it looke lyk a castle, and henc so nobleste, as the other would make it looke lyke a peele." From this it is evident that, through a process which has been briefly traced elsewhere,15 the castle had become a caste-symbol and its possession a mark of gentility, while the pele-house implied no such social distinction.

    1 Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, vol. III, pt. ii, No. 3098. (online transcription)
    2 Archaeologia Aeliana, xiv, 1891, 49. (online copy)
    3 French palis, a fencing-stake, from Latin palus, a sharpened stake.
    4 Scotichronicon, lib. xiii, cap. xxviii.
    5 Acts Parl. Scot., ii, 1424-1567, 346. The abbreviations of the original text has been expanded. ('Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707' transcription)
    6 De origine, moribus, et rebus gestis Scotorum (1578), 61. (online copy)
    7 The structures described by Lesley were probably built of clay reinforced with wattling and light timbers. (P.S.A.S., lxviii (1933-4), 122.) (online copy)
    8 Historie of Scotland, ed. Bannatyne Club, 144.
    9 R.P.C., iv, 106.
    10 Protocol Book of Sir William Corbet, 58, No. 34. (online copy)
    11 P.S.A.N., ix (1899-1900), pp. 241-4. (online copy)
    12 The History of Northumberland (xv, 490) rejects this identification.
    13 Cf. P.S.A.S., lxxx (1945-6), 37 ff. (online copy)
    14 Correspondence of Sir Robert Kerr, first Earl of Ancrum, etc., i, 62. (online copy)
    15 Mackenzie, The Mediaeval Castle of Scotland, 29 f.

    Bain, J., 1894, Calendar of Letters and Papers relating to the Borders of England and Scotland (Edinburgh: HMSO) Vol. 1 1560-1594 p. 120-127 (Thomas Musgrave to Burghley, on the Border Riders 1583) online scan of the printed calendar


    Because I understand that your honour is not well acquainted with the names of the waters and the dwelling places of the riders and ill doers both of England and Scotland, "I beinge animated by your lordshipes late curtesyes and inquisitions, have made boulde to present this platt both of theire names, dwellynges and allyaunces, one with another, trusting your lordship will accepte my dutye towarde your selfe and good will to my cuntrey, not takinge uppon me to doe any thinge as a good clarke, for that I have not applyed my mynd to so good an exersyes, but have bene traned in service, for defence of her Majesties poore people, that my father had the credyte and charge of, in which I have speute a great parte of my tyme, not without the losse of my bloode, and manye troblesome travels and dangers, but with the losse of my deare freudes and compauyons which have bene cruelly murdered by the rebellyous Scottes. Maye it please therefore your lordship to understand, that the ryver called Lyddall, is a fayre ryver, and hath her course doune Lyddisdall, soe as the dale hath the name of the ryver. The ryver is all Scottishe, untill it come to Kyrsopp foote, planted with Ellotes untill it come ueare Wheatoughe towre, then the Armestronges inhabit it on bothe sydes, untill it come to Kyrsopp foote, where it takes the dyvysion of the realmes from Kyrsopp - then the Armestronges have the one syde, and the Englishe Fosters the other syde, soe it desendes by the Harlowe on the one syde and the Ilnythawyt on the other, and runeth into the ryver called Eske. Kyrsopp is a smale becke and desendes from the wast grounde called Kyrsope heade. It devydes the realmes from the meare dyke untill it meat with Lyddall, and is from the head unto the foote without habitacion, and at the foote of it is the fortes. Black Leven water is a littell brooke, and so is Whyt Leven the lyke, and are not in anie place a myle and a halfe dystant one from an other, and are inhabyted with the Nyxons, untill it come to a place called the Blackdobs, and then the Rutligis dwell on bothe the sides of it, untill it come to a place called the Lukkins of Leven, then it desendes Sowpert, wheare the Taylors have it, thens it desendes the boundes of Sopert, and is inhabyted with Graymes called the Graymes of Leven, and raneth into the ryver of Eske at Gorthe Storys howse called the Lard. Eske is a fayre ryver, and cometh throughe Esdall, and is Scottishe, inhabyted with Battesons of Esdell, untill it come neare a placed called the Langhalme castill and meateth with the water called Use, which waters and dales are bothe my Lorde Maxwells untill it come to Cauonby kyrke, and then the Armestrouges and Scottishe Graymes have it untill it meete the ryver of Lydall at the Mote skore, where Fargus Grayme his howse standes. Then it taketh the devysyon of the realmes untill it come to a place called Morton rigge where Will of Kinmont dwelleth; then there is a mere dyke that goeth to a Ryver called Sarke, then is Eske Englishe on bothe sydes, and Sarke ryver devydes, and there are Graymes on both sydes, the one English, the other Scottishe untill it come to Gretnay, where it meteth Eske and both rune to Bownus, and soe take the sea. I shall therefore sett downe the Ellottes of the head of Lyddall as my skyle will afforde, that your lordship maye knowe the better when their deedes shall come in question.

    THE ELLOTTES OF LYDDISDALL:- Robin Ellot of the Reddhughe, cheife of the Ellotes; Wille Ellot of Harskarth his brother; Gebbe Ellott his brother; Arche Ellot his brother; Gawan Ellot his brother; Hobbe Ellot of the Hewghus; John Ellot his brother; Adam Ellot of the Shaws; Arche Ellot called Fyre the brayes; Gybbe Eliot of the Shaues; Gorth Simson; Martin Ellot called Rytchis Martyn. All theise are Robin Ellotes brethren, or his men that are daly at his comaundemeut. The grayne of the Ellotes called the Borneheedes;- Joke Ellot called Joke of Ramsgill; Hobbe Ellot called Curst Hobbe; Addam Ellot called Condus; Arche Ellot called Arche of Hill; Joke Ellot of the Hill; Joke Ellot called Halfe loges. The grayne of the Ellotes of the Parke:- Sims John Ellot of the Parke; Will Ellot, gray Wille; Hobbe Ellot caUed Scotes Hobbe; Jeme Ellot of the Parke; Jeme Ellot called gray Wills Jeme ; Hobbe Ellot called Hobbs Hobbe. The grayne of Martyn Ellot of the Bradley hyghe in Lyddall:- Martyn Ellot of the Bradley; Sime Ellot his sonne; Gowan Ellot called the clarke; Hobbe Ellot his brother; Arche Ellot his brother; Joke Ellot called Gopshawe; John Ellot of Thornesope; Will Ellot of the Steele; Dand Ellot of the Brandley; John Ellot of the same; Seme Ellot of Hardin. All theise Ellotes and manie more of them are at Robin Ellotes comaundment and dwell betwixt the Armytage in Lyddisdall and Whethough towre - fewe of them marryed with Englishe women.

    THE LORD OF MANGERTON and his freudes, and theire allyauuces with England:- Seme Armestronge lord of Mangerton marryed John Fosters daughter of Kyrsope foot, and hath by her issue; Joke Armestronge called the Lordes Joke dwelleth under Denyshill besydes Kyrsope in Denisborne, and maryed Anton Armestronges daughter of Wylyave in Gilsland; John Armestronge called the lordes John, marryet Rytche Graymes sister called Meadope, and he hathe two sonnes ryders in England. Joke his eldest sonne marryed Hobbe Fosters daughter of Kersope alyes; Thome Armestronge called the lordes Tome, dwelleth on a place called Hyghe Morgarton, not marryed with Englande. Runyon Armestronge called the lordes Runyon, dwelleth in a place called the Thornythaite. Rowye Armestronge called the lordes Rowye, dwelleth in Tarrassyde, and marryed oulde Archer Graymes doughter. Some Armestronge called youge Seme, dwelleth ou the Flates nere Margerton, aud marryed Rowye Fosters doughter called Robins Rowye. Thorn Armestronge called Sims Thom, dwelleth in the Demayne Holme by Lendall syde, aud maryed Wat Storyes daughter of Eske, called Wat of the Hove ende. Dik Armestronge of Dryup, dwelleth nere Hyghe Morgarton, and his wyfe is a Scottishe woamen. Joke Armestronge of the Caufeld dwelleth ou the Cawfeld, not marryed in Englaud. Gorthe Armestronge of the Bygams dwelleth on the Bygams, and marryed Will of Carl(i)lles daughter. All theise are the Lorde of Morgertons unckles, or unckles sonnes at the farthest.

    THE ARMESTRONGES of the HOWSE OF WHETAUGHE TOWRE:- Lance Armestronge the olde lord of Whetaughe; Sime Armestronge the yonge lord his Sonne; Andrewe Armestronge called the ladyes Audrewe; Arche Armestronge his brother; Frauncis Armestronge his brother; John Armestronge, called John of Whetaugh; Hobbe Armestronge his sonne, marryed Jeme Fosters daughter of the Stangerth syde; Joke Armestronge his brother; Rynyou Armestronge called Gaudee; Rynyou Armestronge called Rynyou of Twedon; Hector Armestronge of the same; Joke Armestronge of the same. All theise, and more that I canuot call to remembrauuce, are the lord of Whethaugh his sonnes and brothers sonnes. HECTOR ARMESTRONGE of the HARLAWE and his frendes and allyes, - Hector Armestronge called ould Hector; Hector his sonne called youge Hector, marryed Fargus Graymes daughter. Wille Armestronge called Hectors Wille; Thome Armestronge called Hectors Tome; Audrewe Armestronge of the Harlawe; Pattou Armestronge of the Harlawe; Alexander Armestronge called the Gatwarde, marryed Gawins Wille Fosters daughter. THE ARMESTRONGES of MELYONTON quarter aud theire allyes with England:- Arche Armestronge called Rynyons Arche; Gorthe Armestronge sonne to Rynyon; Sime Armestronge, called Whetlesyd, marryed two English women - the fyrst was Robin Fosters daughter, the other Thome Graymes daughter called little Thome. Aby Armestronge sonne to Rynyon; Will Armestronge called Will of Powterlampert; Gorthe Armestronge called yonge Gorthe of Arkyldon, marryed Will of Radhall doughter; Rynyon Armestronge his brother; Martyn Armestronge his brother; Dave Armestronge of Whetlesyd; Andrewe Armestronge of Kyrkton; Hector Armestronge of Cheugles; Thome Armestronge his brother marryed Gourth Routlishe daughter of Shetbelt. Elle Armestronge his brother, marryed John Fosters daughter of Krakrop. Eme Armestronge his brother; Arche Armestronge his brother; Riche Armestronge called Carhand; Thome Armestronge called old Thome of Cheugles; Abye Armestronge called Thoms Abye; Arche Armestronge his brother; Rynyon Armestronge his brother. THE ARMESTRONGES of the LANGHOLME and theire allyes with England:- Creste Armestronge goodman of the Langholme castell, marryed Robbye Graymes sister called Robbe of the Feild; John Armestronge of the Hollus, marryed Water Graymes sister of Netherby. Creste Armestronge of Borngles marryed Gorthe Grames daughter called Thomas Gorthe of Eske; Hector Armestronge of the Stobbam; Rich Armestronge called Ekkes Riche. THE ARMESTRONGES that came of the OFFSPRINGE OF ILL WILLS SANDY, - Ebye Armestronge the goodman of Waddusles; Wille Armestronge his eldest sonne dwelleth in England, and enjoyeth that land that Kinge Henry the Eight gave old Sand Armestronge; Dave Armestronge his brother; Sande Armestronge his brother; Creste Armestronge called Sandes Creste; Creste Armestronge his sonne, and other two sonnes whose names I knowe not. Wille Armestronge called Kynmont, marryed Hotchane Grames daughter, sister to Hot(c)hans Ritche. Joke Armestronge his sonne; Gorthe Armestronge his brother; Frauncis Armestronge his brother; Thome Armestronge his brother; Rynyon Armestronge called Sandes Rynyon; Thome Armestronge his sonne; Arche Armestronge, called Sandes Arche; Forge Armestronge called Sandes Forge; Joke Armestronge called Castills; Joke Armestronge, called Walls; Dave Armestronge, called Dave of Kannonby, marryed Patyes Gorthes Grams doughter. Wille Armestronge his brother; Jeme his brother; John Armestronge called Skinabake; Thome Armestronge of Rowenborne; Gorthe Armestronge of the same, marryed Jeme Taylors daughter of Harper hill.

    Thus have I come downe Lyddell with the Ellotes and Armestrouges alonge the Scottishe syde, and I will goe forward downe Eske syde so far as it is Scottishe, and I will goe on to Gratney to the sea, and then come back to the Englishe syde, and so goe downe agayne, that your honor maye be the more parfyte howe they dwell one agaynst the other.

    THE URWENS and theire alleyaunce with England downe to the Rad Kyrcke.

    The Lord of Gratnay marryed Forgus Grams doughter. Watt Urwen of Gratney hill marryed Robin Fosters doughter. Riche Urwen of Greatney hill; Edward Urwen of Gratnaye. Mongo Urwen marryed William Grames doughter of Levne. Will Urwen of Sarke bridge marryed Littell Thome Graymes doughter. Will Urweu of Readhall. Edward Urwen of Kyrke Patrick. Edward Urwen of the Banshaue marryed oulde Riche the Grames doughter of Netherby. Creste Urwen his sonne. Will Urwen of Kyrkconill; Jefrey Urwen of the Bonshawe; Edward Urwen, called yonge Edward, marryed Robbe Grames doughter of the Fald. Gorthe Urwen of the Bonshawe; John Urwen called the Dukes John.

    Heare endes the waters ande goe into the sea. And nowe that I have made an ende of the Scottishe syde of the water, I wil begin at Kyrsope, and so downe Lyddall agayne.

    THE FOSTERS OF KYRSOPE and Lyddall, and theire alleyaunce with Scotland:- Frauncis Foster of Kyrsopefoote marryed Martyn Ellotes doughter of the Bradley. Hobb Foster of Kyrsope leys marryed Will Fosters daughter of Grena in Liddisdaill. Rowe Foster marryed Sandes Creste Armestronges doughter. Will Foster called Will of the Closse; Joke Foster of the same; Jeme Foster of the Staugo(r)thsyde; Will Foster of the Rone; John Foster his Sonne marryed John Armestronges doughter of Whethaughe. Andrewe Foster his brother; Arche Forster his brother; Joke Foster of the Neuk; Andrew Foster of the same; John Foster of the same; Edward Foster of the same; Gorthe Foster of the Stangorthsyde; Andrewe Foster of the same; Jeme Foster called Adams Jeme; Will Foster of the Rotter forde; John Foster his sonne; Davy Foster of the Rotter forde. Theise Fosters dwell all juste agaynst the Armestronges, and deare neighbours. Nowe I will come to the Ruttligis that dwell within them, and then I will on with Soupart and the Graymes till I come to Bownus.

    THE RUTTLIGIS and there alleyaunce with Scotland which is but little, for that they are every mans praye:- John Rutledge of the Cructborne, slayne by the Scottish ryders. Gerrey his sonne; Addame Rutledge of the Neteclughe; Anton Rutledge of the same; Andrew Rutledge of the same; Dikes Rowe Rutledge; Jeme Rutledge of the Neuk; Jeme Rutledge of the Stubbe; Jeme Rutledge called yonge Jeme; Jarre Rutledge of the Stubbe; Thome Rutledge of Todhills; Allane of the same; Dike Rutledge of the Baley heade; Thome Rutledge of the same. All theise dwell in a place called the Bale, within the Fosters. More Rutlidges dwell downe the water of Levne. John Ruttlidge of the Black Dobs; Nicoll Rutlidge his brother; Andrewe Rutlidge called Black stafe; Gourthe Rutledge of Sletbeke; Jeme Ruttlidge of the same; Will Ruttlidge of Comcrauke; Riche of the same; Johne of the same; Jeme Rutledge of the same; John Ruttlidge of Troughed; Riche Rutlidge of the same; John Rutlidge of the same; Allan Rutlidge his brother; John Dodshone, slayne by the Scottes; Willi Rutlidge of the Lukknes. And manie more that I omyt for tedyousnes to your honor.

    Within the Ruttligis, dwell the NYXONS on both the LEVENS. - Cleme Nixon of the Hole of Levne; Arche Nixson of Kendall; Hobbe Nyxon called Malles Hobbe; John Nixon Daves John; Thome Nixon Henryes Thome; Arche Nixon Wates Arche; Will Nyxon called Beksword; Cudde Nyxon Blankirtluges; Will Nyxon called Byntaby; Cleme Nixon Charles Cleme; Hector Nyxon of the Shate; John Nyxon of the same; John Nyxon Crestos John; Jenkins Ady Nyxon; John Nixon, Wills John; John Nyxon of the Parke.

    Within the Nyxons dwell the Nobles, Taylors, some of the Grames, and a fewe Storyes, and are hard by the howse of Bewcastell.

    Hobbe Noble; Anthon Noble; Jeme Noble; Arche Noble of the Eshecrofte; Will Noble of the Crew, murthered by old Whethaugh; Mongo Noble; Dike Noble; Gourth Noble; Addame Noble of the Stokasted; Will Taylor of the Graynes; Thorn Taylor of the same; Robin Story of the same; Addam Storye of Pelahill; Will Storye of the same; Nicholl Smison; Will Smison slayne; Jenkin Smison; John Rutlidge of Kemorflat; Will Rutlidge of Kyrkbekmoathe; John Makrobin; Arche Scot; John Noble of the Saughes. Theise all dwell within the demayne of Bewcastell.

    The Belbank, and it is within the Eutliges and is next unto Gylslande.

    Hector Noble; Cleme Rutlidge of the Kyll; Jeiikyn Rutlidge of Belbanke; Will Rutlidge of Nansclughe; Arche Poudam; Thome Poudam; Gorth Rutlidge of Mastthorne; Edde Poudam; Gorthe Poudam; Jenkyn Poudam; Creste Poudam; Dave Poudam; Alexander Poudam; Will Foster of the Lynehalme; Allayne Foster of the same. Theise joyne all uppon Gylslande, my lorde of Arrundalls land; howe be it the furthest parte of Lyddisdall and the furthest parte of Bewcastell are not distant xvj myles, so as the ryders may by night easely come to anie parte of it, and doe theire accustomed evill deedes, and be at theire owne howses longe before daye. They maye, as theire use is, go x or xij myles further into the cuntrey, either uppon my lorde of Arrundalls landes or Christopher Dacres, and make a spoyle, and be at home before daie. Heare your honor maye see howe the Fosters inhabit uttermost, the Rutliges next them, and the Nixons next them, and next the howse of Bewcastell the Nobles and others, as I have sett downe before. So I will pas on to Soupart and downe the water on cure English syde; and within Soupart standes Hethersgill, all Hethringtons, almost to Carlill, beinge my lady Knevetes grounde and William Musgraves, and hath there Skalby castell, a stronge howse and a fayre, very well set for a captayne to lye in - yet it is not kept by anie souldyars, not skautly anie dweller in it.

    Soupart, and the Taylors that dwell there.

    Sim Taylor; Jerre Taylor, Gibs sonne; Joke Taylor; John Taylor called Chefton; Cudde Taylor called Pottes Cudde; John Taylor called Shanke; Will Rutlidge of the Lukins; Will Rutlidge of the Sinke heade. Thus farr goeth Bewcastell parte of Souport, and the other halfe is inhabyted with Taylors and belonges to William Musgrave, therefore I over pas theire names.

    Heare I will note unto your honor, of THE GRAMES and howe they did fyrst inhabit the water of Eske; for within the memorye of man yet beinge, they had no land there, but the Storyes had it and the right thereof, for my old Lorde Daker havinge made a wardein rode, was by Englishmen betrayed, and Scotland had intelligence of his cuminge before he came, and was ready for him, so as he and all the cuntrey was in great perill. My Lorde Dakers, suspectinge olde Riche Grame, did apprehend him, and thought to have executed him for that cause; it was his fortune to eskape out of the pryson, and in short tyme made him selfe cleare of that fact - for he did apprehend the deed doer, beinge a Story. The Storyes, fearinge my lorde Dakers fury, fled and lefte the cuntrey, and went into Northumberland to a place called Killum, where they yet dwell and are a great surname. They beinge gone, Rich Grayme, Fergus his brother, and theire brethren, did devyde theire groundes amongest them, and are growen to a hughe companie of men, that came of thes fyve brethren of the Grames as followeth:-
    RICH GRAME OF NETHERBY and his sonnes, his sonnes sonnes, and their allyauuces with Scotland. - Dik Grame called Riches Dik; Water his sonrie marryed Robbe of the Faldes daughter; Dave his brother marryed the larde of Meskyrshin his daughter; Will Grame his brother; Sime Grame his brother; Will Grame second Sonne of old Riche, marryed his fyrst wyfe, the larde of Mangertons daughter, and hath nowe Robin Ellotes sister of Lyddisdall; Joke Grame his soune called Black Joke; Forge Grame his brother; Riche Grame his brother, marryed Wat Bells doughter; Frauncis Grame his brother; Robbe Grame his brother; Frauncis Grame his brother marryed Will Bells doughter; Arche Grayme his brother; Thomas Grame his brother, called coseninge Thomas; Joke Grime his brother called gallotes Joke; Sim Grame his brother; Gorth Grame sonne to old Rich did become Scottishe, and dwelleth at the Red kyrke in Scotland, and was marryed with the Hamiltons. He had by her yssue as followeth:- Riche Grame, he marryed A(r)thor of Carlills daughter; Wat Grame his brother; Gorth Grame his brother; Creste Grame his brother; John Grame his brother. Theise and a nomber more that I cannot calle to memorye, came of old Rich of Netherby, besydes his doughter sonnes, which altogeather be more then a hundreth men besydes women.

    FERGUS GRAME, and those that came of him:- Will Grame, Arthor Grame, theise were both condemned of wilfull murder, and in the rebellion were loused, one by my Lorde Scroup, the other by Sir Simon Musgrave - but shortly after Wille Grame was slayne. Arthor was not askt for anie more, and dwelt on his fathers landes at the Mote, and marryed the larde of Newbye daughter, and hath by her iiijer sonnes not yet men. Riche Grame there brother marryed Allen Baytes doughter in Esdall and hath iiijor or v sonnes by her, not yet men. Gorth Grame his brother marryed Jokke Bells daughter, and hath by her children. Frauncis Grame his brother marryed Edward Urwens doughter of the Boushawe, aud is become Scottishe and dwelleth in Cannouby, sworne denyzant to the Kinge; Jokke Grame called Sandhills his brother; Creste Grame his brother; Hobbe Grame his brother.

    THOME GRAME brother to Rich and his yssue:- Dave Grame of the Bankehead; Gorth Grame, called Thomas Gorthe; Creste Grame his brother; Arch Grame his brother. Gorth Grame marryed Will of Kynmontes syster, and Thomas Carlton that seketh all the dispyte agaynst me, marryed his doughter - so his wyfes frendes will come on the dale to him and her, and spoyle on the night as they go home - and this my lorde Scrup doth suspect in Charleton. Jokke Grame Gorthes sonne; Sand Grame his brother.

    HUTCHON GRAME and other brethren, and his issue:- Andrew Grame marryed Dave Jonstons doughter in Anerdall; Robbe Grame his brother marryed Edward Urwens doughter of the Bonshawe; Arthor Grame his brother; Eiche Grame Andrewes brother, marryed Addame of Carlells doughter in Anerdall.

    JOHN GRAME called the Brayd, another brother, had yssue:- Rytche Grame called Medhopp, aud marryed Edward Urwens sister of Kyrke Patrick; Will Grame his brother, marryed the larde of Gratney his sister. Jokke Grame called Braddes Jokke; Jokke Grame of Medope marryed Edward Urwens doughter of Bonshawe; Sime Grame his brother; Forge Grame his brother; Frauncis Grame his brother; Jokke Grame his brother.

    WILL GRAME called Will of Carlill an other brother and his yssue:- Arthor Grame of Carlill is Scottishe, and dwelleth by the Red kyrke in Scotland. Forge Grame, called Forge of the Nunery, his brother, dwelleth on the grouude Kinge Henry gave his father; Wille Grame his brother, called Will of Rose-trees; Gorth Grame his brother, called Gorth of Carlill.

    WILL GRAME OF THE FALD, an other brother of old Riches of Netherby and his issue:- Robbe Grame of the Fald marryed the larde of Hawmans his doughter; Will of the Fald his brother marryed Hector Armestranges doughter of the Harlowe; Gorth Grame of the Fald.

    THE GRAMES OF LEVNE, which are great ryders and ill doers to both the realmes:- Dike Grame called Blacke Dike; Will Grame his sonne; Robbe Grame his sonne; Wat Grame his sonne. John Grame of West Linton; Andrew Grame of the Mill; Gorth Grame Parsalls Gorth; Thome Grams son to Alyes Wille; Rany Grame; Humfray Grame; Jorthe Grame, Patyes Jorthe; Will Grame called Dikes Will; Dik Grame of the Woodes; Thome Grame called Markes Thome; Will Grame called Stanyston ryge; Pett Grame called Thomas Payt; Gorth Grame his brother; Rich Grame of Randeleuton. These are of Eske:- Gorth Grame of Peretree; Jokke Grame his sonne; Will Grame of the Peretree; Forge Grame of Gravockhall; Blake Jokes Jone Grame.

    The crose frendes and varyaunces, one surname with an other:- The Ellotes with the Fenykes; the Armestronges, Grames, and Urwens with the Musgraves; the Grames with the Bells; the Grames with the Maxwells; the Armestronges with the Robsons of Tendall; the Fosters with Je(d)worth Forrest; the Taylors with the Armestronges.

    The wast groundes that are west of Bewcastell, which I estimate is broad xviij myles from Whyt Levne head to the hed of Kylder water; and from Kersope bed to the head of Cokket water is further to my judgment. When Leddisdall people make anie invacions to the Fenwickes, they goe without Bewcastell x or xij myles, and goe by the Perlfell without the Horse heade nere Kelder, and so alonge abone Chepchase. When they goe to the water of Tyne, they goe by Kyrsopp head, and without the Gele Crage and by Tarnbek and Bogells Gar and so alonge by the Spye Crage, and the Lampert, and come that waye.

    Thus your lordshipe mays see the vewe of our lawles people, who are growne to suche strengthe as almost non dare offende them, they are a people that wilbe Scottishe when they will, and Englishe at theire pleasure; they kepe gentlemen of the cuntrey in feare, care not what evill accions they take in hand, and by theise allyaunces her Majesties horses that should serve the realme are transported into Scotland, the poore are oppressed, for where they owe displeasure they drawe theire plates and veyues theire purpos untill they have made it sure, and bringes in Scotshmen to do execucions of theire pretence, and make them selves clere of those crymes, that theire brothers, sonnes, sisters children, and other nere kynsfolke and allyaunce doe. The poore crye out and are glade to sell theire levinges to them that oppres them, for what it pleaseth them to gyve. I my selfe have sene the Grames assayle my Lorde Scrup being wardin, and have put him and the gentlemen of the cuntrey in great perill, and manie of his companie hurte, yet never anie execucion done for it, but all remytted and forgeven, besydes manie other heighe crymes done, and never anie that loste his lyfe for whatsoever they did. Hardly deare anie gentleman of the cuntrey be of any jury of lyfe and death yf anie of them be indyted, as the justices of that circuit can testefie, they are growne so to seke bloode, for they will make a quarrell for the death of theire grandfather, and they will kyll any of the name they are in feade with. So I (my good lord), ame banyshed my cuntrey for feare of my lyfe, and from my place of service, where I have served this x yeres, and I doe but report my doinges to the gentlemen and trewe people of the cuntrey, and my behavyour to my neighbours. And seinge my lord, I anie banished from my frendes and forst to stande on my gard in land of pease, havinge tyed my selfe to all the Queenes lawes which they dare not answer, my onely trust resteth in your honor to be my helps, trustinge your lordship will pittie my estate and my olde fathers, and I shalbe bounde daly to pray to God for your good health longe lyfe and incresce of much honor. And what I shall take in hand, I hope my lord and master the Earle of Warwick, and his brother, my lord of Hunsdon and my lord presydent of the north, will gyve theire wordes for me. Thus I have shewed my diligence towardes your lordship: hopinge to have perdone for my rashe presumpsion to your lordship, I gyve over to troble your lordship, prayinge the Almightie to preserve your lyfe health and honor longe in this realnie of England."
    Signed: Thomas Musgrave.

     *West Tyvidale answereth to the English W. March.
     Est Tyvedale answeieth to the Midle March.
     In West Tyvydale. - Lard of Backclugh, a Scott.
     Lard of Bedoroule, a Trumboll.
     Lard of Eon Jedwalh, a Dowglass.
     In Est Tyvydale. - Lard of Cesford, a Carr.
     Lard of Craynston, a Carr.
     "In Lyddisdaile. - The cheff ruler is the Lord Bothwell, to whom the Armitag, wherof James Carr is kepar."

    19 pp. Addressed at the head: "To the right honorable and my singuler good lord, the Lord Burleigh lord Heigh Treasorer of England."

    This page last edited on 5 February 2016.

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