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Northumberland Castles and Fortalices in 1415

A list of the names of the castles and fortalices in Northumberland was preserved in the Harleian manuscripts which Cadwallader John Bates transcribed and printed in 1891. He carefully dated this to the first seven months of 1415, possibly July, and suggests it was prepared to inform Henry V in "whose hands he would leave the places of strength on the Scottish Border previous to his embarking on the expedition that led to the victory of Agincourt." The Gatehouse transcription of the list is below. However, Bates used a number of modified letter forms to reflect the hand of the scribe which can not be found in any online font so this is not an exact copy.

Clicking on the modern name will open the gatehouse page for the site.

margin note name of place owner Modern Name
(click to view record)
  Castro de Novo-Castro sup Tynam Dni Regis Newcastle-upon-Tyne Castle
  Castrum de Tynmoth Priori de Tynmoth Tynemouth Castle
  Castrum de Ogill Robti Orgill Chr1 Ogle Castle
  Castrum de Morpeth Baronis de Graystock Morpeth Castle
  Castrum de Mitford Henrici Percy de Athell2 Mitford Castle
  Castrum de Warkworth Com' Northumbriae Warkworth Castle
  Castrum de Alnewicke Com' Northumbriae Alnwick Castle
fortalicium Castrum de Horton iuxta mare har W. Wychester Horton Castle, Blyth
  Castrum de Eshete Dni Johis heroun chlr Eshott Castle
  Castrum de Dunstanburgh Dni Ducis Lancastriae Dunstanburgh Castle
  Castrum de Bamburgh Dni Regis Bamburgh Castle
  Castrum villae Berwicke Dni Regis Berwick Castle
  Castrum de Twysill Johis Heroun Chlr Twizell Castle
  Castrum de Heton Thome Gray de eadem Castle Heaton Castle
  Castrum de Norham Epi Dunelm Norham Castle
  Castrum de Werke Sup Twedam Thome Grey Chlr Wark on Tweed Castle
  Castrum de ffurde Willms heroun Chlr Ford Castle
  Castrum de Ethalle Roberti Maneres Etal Castle
  Castrum de Chauelingham Haer Alani heton Chlr Chillingham Castle
  Castrum de Edlingham Edmundi Hastyngs Chlr Edlingham Castle
  Castrum de Kaloule vet': Johes Clauerin Chlr Old Callaly Castle Hill
  Castrum de Harbotle Robto Umfrevill Chlr Harbottle Castle
  Castrum de Ayden Robti Ramsey et Dom Radi Grey Aydon Castle
  Castrum de Langle Comitis Northumbriae Langley Castle
  Castrum de Thirwall Rolandi de Thirlwall Thirlwall Castle
fortalicium Castrum de Blekensope Johis de Blekensope Blenkinsopp Castle
  Castrum de Prudhowe Dni Johi ducis Bedford Prudhoe Castle
  Castrum de Horton in Glendall Thomas Grey Chlr3 Horton Castle, Chatton
fortalicium Castrum de Swinburne John Widrington Chlr Great Swinburne Castle
  Castrum de Haughton in Tindale John Widrington Chlr Haughton Castle, Humshaugh
  Castrum de Sewyngsheles Robti Ogile Chlr Sewingshields Castle
  Castrum de Rokesborough Dni Regis Roxburgh Castle4 [Scotland]
  Castrum de Bothall Johi Berterham Chlr Bothal Castle
Tho.lyburne Castrum de Belfurth Dom de Darce Belford Westhall Tower
fortalicium Castrum de Dichant Rici Lylburn Detchant Tower
  Castrum de Shawden Thome Lylburn Shawdon Hall
fortalicium Castrum de Kippitheton Willimi Swinburn Chlr Capheaton Castle
Numerus 37
  Turris de Whitle iuxta Tinmowth Prioris de Tynmouth Whitley Tower
  Turris de Sighale Willimi de la vaile Seghill Tower
  Turris de Seton de la uale Willimi Wychester Chlr Seaton Delaval Castle
  Turris de Kirklawe Willimi Eure Chlr Kirkley Tower
  ffortalicium de Harnhamhall5 Robto Swinburne Harnham Hall, Belsay
  ffortalicium de Shortflate Robti Ramese Shortflatt Tower
  Turris de Meldon Nichi Heron Meldon Tower
  Turris de Walington Willi Strothir Wallington Hall
  Turris de Northmidileton Robti Ogille Chlr North Middleton Tower
  Turris de Whitton Iuxta aquam Rogeri Thornton Netherwitton Castle
  Turris de West herle Johns Herle West Harle Tower
  Turris de Babington Robti Langwath Little Bavington Tower
  Turris de Stranton Johns Corbett Stanton Old Hall
  Turris de Howicke Emerici Heringe Howick Hall
  Turris de Preston Roberti Herbotille Preston Tower Ellingham
  Turris de Hopyn Robti Hoppyn Hoppen Tower
  Turris de Ederston Thomae fforester Adderstone Tower
  Turris Thomae Bradforth in Elwicke   Elwick Tower of Thomas Bradforth
  Turris Thomae de Elwyke in eadem   Elwick Tower of Thomas Elwyke
  Turris de Lowicke Dom de Darcy Lowick Tower
  Turris de Barmor Johns Preston Barmoor Castle
  Turris de Holburn   Holburn Tower
  Turris de Haggarston Thomae Hagerston Haggerston Castle
  Turris de Berrington Robti Manores Berrington Tower
  Turris de Skremerston Johis Swinhowe Scremerston Tower
  Turris de Cornhill Willimi Swinhowe Cornhill Castle
  Turris de Turis de Langton in Glendall6 Henrici Strother Lanton Tower
Thomi Haisandes7 Turris de Hethpulle Robti Manores Hethpool Tower
  Turris de Ildirton Thomae de Ildirton Ilderton Tower
  Turris de Krawlawe Johis Heron Chlr Crawley Tower
  Turris de Whittingham Willimi de Heron Whittingham Tower
  Turris de Newton Juxta Edlingham Johis Barker Newtown Tower, Edlingham
  Turris de Eslington Thomae de Hessilrige Eslington Tower
  Turris de Alneham Comitis Northumberland Alnham Earls Pele
  Turris de Terwhit inferioris Hugonis Galon Low Trewhitt
  Turris Kartyngton Johis Cartyngton Cartington Castle
  Turris de Thropton Willi Grene Thropton Tower
  Turris de Whitton iuxta Rothebery Rectoris eiusdem Whitton Tower
  Turris de Heppell Robti Ogill Chlr Hepple Tower
  ffotalicium de fflotwayton Robti Ogill Chlr Flotterton Tower
  Turris de Thernham Robti Horsley Farnham Tower, Hepple
  Turris de Otiburne Robti Umfravill Chlr Otterburn Tower
  Turris de Trowhen Willus Butecom Troughend Tower, Rochester
  Turris de Chipchesse Alexandri Heronn Chipchase Castle
  Turris de Werke in Tyndall Thomae Grey Chr Wark on Tyne Castle
  Turris de Simondburn Willmi Heronn Chr Simonburn Tower
  Turris de Hawtwisill   Haltwhistle Musgrove Tower
  Turris de Denton iuxta Hawtwisill   Denton Hall [Cumberland]
  Turris de Hexham Archiepo Ebor Hexham Moot Hall and Old Gaol
  Turris de Bewfronte Dni Johes Widrington Chlr Beaufront Castle
  Turris de Halton Willmi Carnaby Halton Castle, Whittington
  Turris de Corbridge vicar eiusdem Corbridge Vicars Pele
  Turriss de ffenwicke Henrici ffenwicke Fenwick Tower
  Turris de Stanwardham vicar eiusdem Stamfordham Vicars Tower
  Turris de Belsowe Johis Midilton Chlr Belsay Castle
  Turris de Nesbette in Glendalle Thomae Grey Chlr Nesbit Tower
  Turris de Newsted Robti de Ogill Chlr Newstead Tower
numerus 738
  Turris de Buckton Willi Atkynson Buckton Tower
  Turris de Schilbotyll Ducis Bedford Shilbottle Tower
  Turris de Chatton vicarij eiusdem Chatton Vicars Pele
  Turris in eadem Robti forstere Chatton Earls Tower
  Turris Lematon Willmi Bednell Lemmington Hall
  Turris de Bidilstan Johis Selby Biddlestone Hall
  Turris Ellysden Rectoris eiusdem Elsdon Tower
Castrum Turris de Wodryngton Johes Wodrington Chlr Widdrington Castle
  Turris de Whitfeld Mathei Whitfeld Whitfield Tower
  Turris de Bamburgh Magri eiusdem9 Bamburgh Tower
  Turris de Middilton iuxta mare Willmi Musschamp Middleton next to the sea Tower
  Turris de Newland iuxta Belforth   Newland Tower
  Turris de Wittslad iuxt mare   Weetslade
  Turris de Ponteland10 vicar eiusdem Ponteland Vicarage Tower
  Turris de Coketeland Prioris de Tinemouth Coquet Island Tower
  Turris de Newton in Glendall Thomae Strother Kirknewton Tower
  Turris de Lilburne Johis Carr West Lilburn Tower
  Turris de Kylay David Gray Kyloe Tower
  Turris de ffenton Radi Gray Chlr Fenton Tower
  Turris de Emildon vicar eiusdem Embleton Tower
  Turris de Craister Edmundi Crasestir Craster Tower
Numerous 78

Bates 1415 Map of Northumberland Castles

Selected notes from Bates (Most of Bates notes are biographical and about showing the date of the list to be 1415; These are omitted)
Abbreviations and Latin

Dr Andy King has written an interesting piece on this list with the suggestion that 'Northumberland's gentry builders were anxious that their edifices should be graced with the name of 'castle', to be classed alongside noble, time-hallowed fortresses such as Alnwick, Warkworth and Bamburgh. The comissioners who compiled the 1415 survey may well have been subjected to lobbying by the owners of these buildings, who would would have been anxious to ensure that they were accorded the 'correct' status; the marginal annotations perhaps reflect the more considered opinions of the commissioners, after the process of compiling the survey had been completed, and they were somewhat removed from the pressures of their peers.'
King, Andy, 2007, 'Fortress and fashion statements: gentry castles in fourteenth-century Northumberland' Journal of Medieval History Vol. 33 pp. 396-7