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In 1533 Jan 30, Roberto Norwiche, Johanni Gage militi, Johanni Spelman militi, Cristofero Hales armigero, Thome Armorer, et Johanni Colbecke (Robert Norwiche, Sir John Gage, Sir John Spelman, Christopher Hales, Thomas Armorer, and John Colbecke. {Feoffees of Sir William Fitzwilliam}) was granted, by Henry VIII, (In year 24 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Cowdray (Cowdray House)
Pro Roberto Norwyche milite et aliis de concessione pro parco fiendo
Rex omnibus ad quos etc. salutem. Sciatis, tec. concedimus et licenciam damus dilectis nobis Roberto Norwiche militi capitali Justiciario nostro de Banco, Johanni Gage militi, Johanni Spelman militi uni Justiciariorum nostrorum ad placita coram nobis tenenda, Cristofero Hales armigero, Thome Armorer, et Johanni Colbecke quod ipsi heredes et assignati sui et eorum diutius vivens seu viventes ac heredes et assignati eorum diutius viventes ad eorum libitum et voluntatem sexcentas acras terre, prati, pasture, et boscii psorum Roberti, Johannis, Johannis, Christoferi, Thome, et Johannis jacentes in Esseborne et Midhurst in comitatu Sussexie imparcare et cum palis sepibus et fossatis includere possint et valeant. Et quod predicte sexcente acre terre, prati, pasture, et bosci sic incluse decetero vocarentur et nuncuparentur Parcum de Cowdrey imperpetuum. Ac eciam quod iidem Robertus, Johannes, Johannes, Christopherus, Thomas, et Johannes heredes et assignati sui habeant deinceps liberam warrenam in eodem parco et in omnibus predictis sexcentis acris terre, prati, pasture, et bosci, virtute harum literarum patentium includendis aut inclusis, ac separalem piscariam in omnibus aquis infra easdem terras ut prefertur includendas vel inclusas. Ita quod nullus parcum et warrennam illa intret ad fugandum in eis nec aquas predictas ad piscandum in eis nec quicquid inde capiat quod ad parcum aut warrenam seu separalem piscariam vel ad libertatem parci warrenne aut separalis piscarie pertineat sine licencia et voluntate ipsorum Roberti, Johannis, Johannis, Christoferi, Thome, et Johannis heredum aut assignatorum suorum sub forisfactura decem librarum. Quare volumus et firmiter precipimus pro nobis et heredibus nostris predictis quod iidem Robertus, Johannes, Johannes, Christoferus, Thomas, et Johannes heredes et assignati sui et heredeset assignati eorum cujuslibet diutius viventes habeant et teneant imperpetuum dictum parcum vocatum Cowdrey Parke et dictas sexcentas acras terre, prati, pasture, et bosci ut premittitur includendas siveinclusas; necnon liberam warrenam et separalem piscariam predictas in eisdem, ut predictum est cum omnibus libertatibus privilegiis et liberis consuetudinibus ad hujusmodi parcum warrenam seu separalem piscariam pertinentibus sive spectantibus absque perturbacione molestacione impedimento seu gravamine nostri heredum vel successorum nostrorum aut aliquorum officiariorum sive ministorum nostrorum quorumcumque. Ita quod nullus parcum illum aut warrenan predictam intret ad fugandum vel venandum in eis nec aquas predictas ad piscandum in eisdem nec quicquid inde capiat quod ad parcum aut warrenam seu separalem piscariam pertinent sine licencia et voluntate ipsorum Roberti, Johannis, Johannis, Cristoferi, Thome, et Johannis heredum et assignatorum suorum sub forisfacture predicta.
Et ulterius de uberiori gracia nostra dedimus et concessimus ac per presentes licenciam damus et concedimus specialem prefatis Roberto Norwyche, Johanni Gage, Johanni Spelman, Cristofero Hales, Thome Armorer et Johanni Colbecke quod ipsi heredes et assignati sui et eorum quilibet diutius vivens ad eorum vel ejus libitum et voluntatem muros et turres cum petris calce et zabulo circa supra et infra eorum manerium de Cowdrey in comitatu Sussexie edificare facere et construere possint et valeant, ac manerium illud cum hujusmodi muris et turribus includere, necnon muros et turres illos batellare vel tinellare kernellare et marchecollare. Et idem manerium sic inclusum et muros et turres predictos sic batellatos vel tinellatos, kernellatos aut marchecollatos edificatos et constructos tenere possint et valeant eis heredibus et assignatis suis imperpetuum absque aliquo impeticione, perturbacione. molestacione, impedimento seu gravamine nostri heredum aut successorum nostrorum aut alicujus sive aliquorum aliorum justiciarorum escaetorum vicecomitum seu ministrorum nostrorum quorumcumque; alio statuto actu ordinatu provisione seu restriccione incontrarium inde factis editis seu provisis non obstantibus. Et hoc absque aliquo fine seu feodo inde ad opus nostrum in hanaperio Cancellarie nostre reddendis solvendis seu faciendis. Eo quod expressa mencio, etc. In cujus etc. Teste Rege apud Westmonasterio tricesimo die Januarii. per breve de privato sigillo et de dato, etc. (Hope)

Sir Rob. Norwiche, C.J. of the Common Pleas, Sir John Gage, Sir John Spelman, one of the justices of the King's bench, Christopher Hales, Thos. Armorer, and John Colbecke. Licence to impark 600 acres of land meadow, pasture and wood, in Essborne and Midhurst, Sussex, to be called the park of Cowdry, to have free warren and fishery within the same, and to build fortifications therein.—S.B. (Date illegible.) Pat. Westm., 30 Jan. 24 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 3. (LP Hen. VIII)

And further of our copious grace we grant and concede by these present our freedom giving and allowing the specifically aforesaid Robert ... their heirs and their assignees and those who it pleases them to there reside or those the same please or will may erect, build and construct walls and towers with stone, lime and sand around above and below their manor of Cowdray in the county of Sussex and also strengthen that manor with these enclosing walls and towers and also the walls and towers formerly said with battlements or 'tinellare' crenellations and machiolations. And likewise the said enclosed manor and walls and towers with battlements or 'tinellatos', crenellations or machiolations so built and made can be held and valued by them, their heirs and assignees forever without anyone attack, disturbance, molestation, impediment or annoyance ... (translation by Philip Davis)

Granted at Westminster. Grant by s.b..


The VCH references "L. and P. Hen. VIII, vi, 106 (23)." no such reference exists and attributes this licence to Sir William Fitzwilliam. Woodburn and Guy date this to 1532 and also attribute it to Sir William. In fact the licences was granted to the named men who were feoffees (Trusties) of Fitzwilliam presumable acting on his behalf whilst he was busy with his considerable and numerous royal duties. Given FitzWilliams position the wording of the licence may be seen as a gracious reward to his trustees. Did they actually use the park for hunting?
Quite what is meant by "tinellare kernellare"? This seems to translate as 'cowlstaff' crenellation suggesting a particular type of crenellation.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Fitzwilliam, William, earl of Southampton (c.1490–1542)
Fitzwilliam, William, earl of Southampton (c.1490–1542), courtier and naval administrator... Henry VIII's cup-bearer in 1509. By 1512 he was one of the king's spears and participated in the failed invasion of Guyenne led by Thomas Grey, second marquess of Dorset. In 1513 he became an esquire (later knight) of the body, served against the French on the Mary Rose, flagship of the ill-fated admiral Sir Edward Howard, and was seriously wounded by a crossbow, led a company of the king's guard in France, and was knighted on 25 September following the capture of Tournai... By April 1522 he was a privy councillor, and he remained active in that capacity until his death. In the same year he became master of the ordnance at Calais. In 1522–3 he again served as vice-admiral, preparing ships at Portsmouth for the war against France... His parliamentary career may have begun as early as 1523, a period for which the names are lost. If so, it is logical to assume that he was knight of the shire for Surrey or sat for a local borough, given his long association there. He and Sir Nicholas Carew were elected knights of the shire in 1529... He also began building an estate in neighbouring Sussex, purchasing Cowdray in 1528 for £2193 6s. 8d., though he did not occupy the house until 1535. (Robison)

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.