The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1470, Christopher Conyers, knight was granted, by Bishop Lawrence Booth, (In year 13 of his pontificate) a Durham licence to crenellate Sokburn (Sockburn Castle)
Has licence to enclose with a wall and fortify his manor of Sokburn. (Rep. Dep. Keeper)


After a period of restrictions on his actions, from the Nevilles, Bishop Booth, who had served as keeper of the Privy Seal under Henry VI, was, in 1470, free to exercise his power again and this licence may be seen as showing Booth's temporal power and the re-establishment of Bishop's relationship with the Conyers.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Sir Christopher Conyers of Sockburn (c. 1422 - d. 13 Mar. 1487) m. Mary Eure (d. 16 Mar. 1470) (to be distinguished from Christopher Conyers (d. 1461) unknighted head of the Hornby branch of the family). The Conyers had held the manor for many generations and had long standing associations with the bishops of Durham (as hereditary constables of Durham castle, fore instance). The resulting building does not seem to have been particularly fortified despite the location, near Scotland, or the the ongoing War of the Roses.

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.