The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1397 Feb 12, Willielmus Stukeland [Stirkeland], clericus (William Strickland) was granted, by Richard II, (In year 20 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Penreth (Hutton Hall, Penrith)
Licence for William Stirkeland, clerk, to crenellate his chamber in Penreth in the March of Scotland. By K. (CPR)

Willielmus Stukeland, clericus ... quandam cameram suam in villa de ... Penreth, March. Scociae. (Turner and Parker)

Granted at Westminster. Grant by King.


In 1397 William Strickland obtained a licence to strengthen and crenellate his pele tower. Two years later a further licence was granted to build a barmkin.
Perriam (2008) argues that Strickland is more likely to have built Hutton Hall, a tower in the town, on the bases of the 1397/99 licences, and that the castle was built by one of the Nevills, probably in 1386. The 1397 licence wording of cameram suam in villa seems to support this suggestion but the 1399 licence wording to build a barmkin adjacent to the tower may fit better with Penrith Castle. However, Perriam's evidence is convincing and, from April 2010, Gatehouse attributes this licence to Hutton Hall although previous versions of this list, online and in print, have identified it with Penrith Castle.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

William Strickland (d. 1419)
William Strickland (d. 1419), long civil and legal service to the bishop of Carlisle and to the Percys and Cliffords became Bishop of Carlisle himself in 1399.

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

Please do inform Gatehouse if you see any errors, can add information or can otherwise help to improve this resource. Please contact Gatehouse.

Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.