The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1392 Sept 21, Johannes Devereux (John Devereux) was granted, by Richard II, (In year 16 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Penshurst (Penshurst Place)
Licence for John Devereux to enclose his manor of Penshurst, co. Kent, with a wall of stone and lime, crenellate and turret the same, and hold the premises in fee. By p.s. (CPR)

Johannes Devereux ... manerium ... Penhurst, Kanc. (Turner and Parker)

Granted at Woodstock Manor. Grant by privy seal.


A licence to crenellate was granted in 1341. A second licence to crenellate, granted in 1392, produced an enclosing outer wall with side and angle towers.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Devereux, John, Baron Devereux (d. 1393)
Devereux, John, Baron Devereux (d. 1393), soldier and royal councillor. A soldier from an obscure background who, through long royal service and marriage to a wealthy widow, rose to high position including knight of the Garter.

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.