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In 1388 Feb 12, Johannes Russell (Sir John Russell) was granted, by Richard II, (In year 11 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Strengesham (Strensham Moat Farm)
Licence for the king's knight, John Russell to crenellate his houses at Strengesham and Dormeston, co. Worcester. By p.s. (CPR)

Johannes Russell ... mansionem sive habitatio ... Strengesham, Wygorn. (Turner and Parker)

Granted at Westminster. Grant by privy seal.


Licensed with Dormston.
Although Russell was to be a leading figure of Richard II government in the 1390's at this date the licence seems to be a reward for this glamourous knight joining the Kings service.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Sir John Russell, (d. 1405)
Sir John Russell, (d. 1405) Richard II's master of the horse, 1391-1398. Member King's Council 1397-99. JP Worcestershre 1397-99 MP Worcestershire 1378, 1379, 1397. Left service with Thomas Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, to become a 'King's knight' in 1388, he was granted an annuity of £50 'in consideration of his having been retained to stay with the King for life, whereby he lost fees which he was wont to receive from his lord'. Sir John was evidently a skilful horseman, and is known to have taken a leading part in tournaments, such as the famous jousts held at Calais in May 1390 between contenders from England and France. (Roskell et al)

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.