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In 1369 April 24, Abbas et Conventus de Waltham Sanctae Crucis (Abbot Thomas de Wolmersty) were granted, by Edward III, (In year 43 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Waltham Sanctae Crucis (Waltham Abbey)
Licence for the abbot and convent of Waltham HolyCross, co. Essex, to crenellate their abbey. By p.s. (CPR)

Abbas et Conventus de Waltham Sanctae Crucis ... mansum Abbatiae et procinctum ejusdem ... Waltham Abbey, Essex. (Turner and Parker)

Granted at Westminster. Grant by privy seal.


A licence to crenellate the belfry of the abbey, then ruinous, had been granted in 1366 (qv). This one, to crenellate the abbot's house and precinct, may represent a more nervous clergy becoming aware of an upsurgent and anti-clerical populous, in an area where such feelings were particularly strong.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Abbot Thomas de Wolmersty, elected 1345, (d.1371)

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.