The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1366 Dec 27, Adam de Coppendale, de Beverlaco (Coppandale; Copandale) was granted, by Edward III, (In year 40 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Beverlaco (house in Beverley)
Licence for Adam de Coppendale of Beverley to crenellate his dwelling-place in Beverley. By p.s. (CPR)

Adam de Coppendale, de Beverlaco ... quoddam mansum suum in villa de ... Beverlaco. (Turner and Parker)

Granted at Windsor. Grant by privy seal.


Flower suggests there was partisan conflict between the major merchants of Beverley, such as Adam, and minor merchants backed by the Archbishop of York and such conflicts may be a reason for a wealthy merchant to fortify his house, although the licence to crenellate presumably had more to do with social cachet.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Adam de Coppendale (b. 1315)
An Adam de Coppendale is recorded as a wool merchant in 1322 (presumably the father of Adam) and Adam and his brother Stephen are given a licence in 1371 'to buy 400 quarters of divers kinds of corn in Yorkshire and to bring them to London to make their profit, provided that they find security that they will not take it anywhere other than to London.' (CPR 1370-74, 54)

Adam Coppandale was a merchant of York and Beverley, who had reached a ripe old age after filling many important offices in the later town. At one time he was joint leader of the men of Beverley in an array of arms; and by letters patent of October 9, 1383, the king, in consideration of his sixty eight years, specially exempted him from the necessity of taking office. (Flower p. 81)

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.