The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1343 Aug 18, Johannes de Kiriel (John de Kiriel; John de Criol; John Cryel) was granted, by Edward III, (In year 17 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Westyngehangre (Westenhanger Castle)
Licence for John de Kiriel to crenellate his dwelling-place of Westyngehangre, co. Kent. By p.s. (CPR)

Johannes de Kiriel ... mansum ... Westyngehangre, Kanc. (Turner and Parker)

Granted at Westminster. Grant by privy seal.


The castellated building that resulted, always called a castle, was not able to resist a band of raiders, lead by Sir John Cornwall, in 1381, who enter at night using ladders. (Coulson, 1992, p. 100-1)

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Sir John Kiriel (1305-1376)
The Kiriel were a well established knightly family. Sir John Kiriel (b. 1305) was a knight banneret in 1369, most of the other bannerets of this date were of baronial status, which implies he had some significant royal contact.

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.