The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1336 April 9, Johannes, Episcopus Karleol (John Bishop of Carlisle) was granted, by Edward III, (In year 10 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate La Roos [La Rose] (Rose Castle)
Licence for John, bishop of Carlisle, to crenellate his dwelling place of La Rose. By K. (CPR)

Johannes, Episcopus Karleol ... mansum ... La Roos. (Turner and Parker)

Granted at Waltham Holy Cross. Grant by King.


Licences to crenellate in 1336 and 1355.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Bishop John Kirkby (<1290-1352)
Bishop John Kirkby (sat 1332-1352). Presumably the castle had come to the see with the previous bishop John Ross, son of Robert de Ros, 1st Baron de Ros. Kirkby had, as prior of Carlisle, had disputes with Ross. So possibly the licence was to secure claim to the castle. However, bishop Kirkby was actively involved in Scottish affairs, sometimes leading raids into Scotland and the Scots, who were said to have a particularly hatred of him, did attack Rose Castle in 1337. Kirkby also had quarrels, some legal, some violent, with fellow churchmen and the citizen of Carlisle.

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.