The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1309 {July} 16, Robert {Clifford} was granted, by Edward II, (In year 2 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Pendragon (Pendragon Castle)
Mandate to make letters to Robert ... that he may crenellate his castles of Brouham and Pendragon, C. Westmoreland. (Cal. Chancery Warrants)

Granted at Langley.


A fortified tower-house on a spur with deep ditch from circa 1173 with later additions and alterations. A licence to crenellate was granted in 1309, to Robert Clifford, and it is possible that the castle was enlarged at this time. The enrollment, in the Chancery Warrents, is mutilated and the letters patent are not enrolled in the Patent or Charter Rolls. It is possible the licence was withdrawn before final enrollment.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Clifford, Robert, first Lord Clifford (1274–1314)’
A leading baron and, briefly, marshal of England, most notable for his military service against the Scots. Killed, leading a charge, at the battle of Bannockburn. Given his service and it is perhaps surprising he was not ennobled. His relationship with Edward II was uneasy and he disapproved of Piers Gaverston but his qualities and reputations as a soldier made him someone the king could not afford to entirely alienate.

In the years around 1300, possibly as a result of a visit in that year by Edward I and his court, Clifford made substantial additions to Brougham Castle, finally gaining the seal of royal approval in the form of a licence to crenellate in 1309. (Summerson)

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.