The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1277 Dec 28, the burgesses were granted, by Edward I, (In year 6 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Lanbadar (Aberystwyth town)
Grant that the town of Lanbadar shall be a free borough; and grant to the burgesses of the said borough, and their heirs, that they may enclose the town of Lanbadar with a ditch and wall ... (CCalR)

Granted at Westminster.


Defence was not unimportant in Wales but licences were not usually granted for the many defended 'english' towns in Wales. A borough charter.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.