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In 1262 Aug 16, Robert de Twenge, the king's household knight (Robert de Thweng; Robert Thwing) was granted, by Henry III, (In year 46 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate his house at Bergh (Bergh Castle)
Licence for Robert de Twenge, the king's household knight, to crenellate his house of Bergh, co. York. (CPR)

Henricus, &c.–familiari nostro Roberto de Tweng.,–domum suum de Bergh in com. Ebore petra et calce, non nec et fossatia, firmatam perficere et kernellare. (Longstaff)

Granted at St. Germain des Prés.


John Lord Lumley, the co-heir of the Twenges, had the original of this licence in Elizabeth's time, when an elaborate abstract of his evidence was made. The ruins of Kilton Castle, the main seat of the Twenges, would suit in style, but I suspect that their other residence, Cornburgh, near Sheriff Hutton, is really the Bergh of the record. It was afterwards settled on a younger line, who resided there for some generations, and I hear the house present ancient work, but I have not seen it. (Longstaff)

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

Thwing , Sir Robert (III) of (d. 1245x57)
Identifying this Robert de Thwenge has difficulties. The Sir Robert Thweng of the ODNB died before 1257 but his legitimate grandson Robert was still a minor in 1266. Thus it seems that 'Robert, perhaps an illegitimate son of Sir Robert, who married a woman named Hugolina, participated in negotiations with the Scots, and from 1262 was employed as a knight of the royal household.' (Vincent)

Illegitimate status may have required additional support to Robert's ownership of Bergh (the inheritance of which was presumably by will rather than inheritance) and direct royal contact as a household knight will also have helped in obtaining this licence. It is possibly that Robert's illegitimate status meant that he was a full-time, life long royal knight and a royalist during the baron's war.

Biographical source include;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

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Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.