The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
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In 1261 Sept 28, the burgesses were granted, by Henry III, (In year 45 of his reign) a Royal licence to crenellate Gernemuth (Great Yarmouth Town Wall)
Licence for the burgesses of Gernemuth to close their town with a wall and ditch so that the town shall remain closed so long as the burgesses remain faithful to the king and his heirs; and grant that there shall be a gaol in the town for the incarceration and keeping of prisoners and malefactors according to law and the custom of the realm.
Grant to the bailiffs and good men of Great Yarmouth of murage for six years from Michaelmas, 45 Henry III. (CPR)

Granted at St. Paul's, London..


A grant of Murage for six years given at the same time.

Gatehouse suspects that the licence to crenellate may have been part of the incentive required to get the citizens of Great Yarmouth to build and fund walls and a gaol.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

Please do inform Gatehouse if you see any errors, can add information or can otherwise help to improve this resource. Please contact Gatehouse.

Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.