The comprehensive gazetteer and bibliography of the medieval castles, fortifications and palaces of England, Wales, the Islands.
The listings
Other Info
Print Page 
Next Record 
Previous Record 
Back to list 
In 1135-40, abbas Sancti Augustini was supposedly granted, by Stephen, a Royal licence to crenellate Sancti Augustini (St Augustine's Abbey)
Stephanus rex Anglorum justic(ie) et baronibus de Chent salutem. Concedo quod abbas Sancti Augustini faciat chernellos super murum ecclesie sue, ita tamen quod murum illum non elevet plus quam modo est, preter solos chernellos. Teste ep||(iscop)o S(an)c(ti) David. Apud Oxon(iam), per W....Oxon. (Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum)

Granted at Oxford.

Although this document has been considered by some as a licence to crenellate it is rejected as a licence.


In the cartulary's chronological table (p. 33) this is dated 1137. Neither Bernard (d. 1148) nor David bishop of St. David's witnessed for Stephen after 1140. The contents and the form of the witness list, however, suggest a forgery of much later date. (Cronne and Davis)

In 1979 Coulson accepted this as a 'genuine' though of c. 1154-1216 but by 1994 considered it 'spurious'.

Original source is;

(In fact, the original source given is usually a transcription/translation of what are precious medieval documents not readily availably. It should be noted that these transcription/translations often date to the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries and that unwitting bias of transcribers may affect the translation. Care should also be taken to avoid giving modern meaning to the medieval use of certain stock words and terms. Licentia is best translated as 'freedom to' not 'permission'.)

Significant later sources are;

More information about licences to crenellate can be found here.

Please do inform Gatehouse if you see any errors, can add information or can otherwise help to improve this resource. Please contact Gatehouse.

Record created by Philip Davis. This record last updated on Sunday, October 4, 2015.